The main types of rehabilitation for disabled people
In order to understand what kinds of rehabilitation of disabled people exist, it is necessary first to understand what this term means by itself. In the modern sense, the word implies complex measures that allow to restore human abilities completely or in some part of life, social interaction, professional activity. The main idea of rehabilitation is the elimination of life limitations or compensating them in the most stable form. Rehabilitation is aimed at working with people whose difficulties are caused by health problems. The optimal outcome of such a program is the achievement by a person of absolute independence( including material independence) and integration into society without a sense of inferiority of oneself and one's capabilities.
General understanding of
Analyzing the concept and types of social rehabilitation of disabled people, it is necessary to note: over the years the semantic content of this term has changed somewhat. For the first time, they began talking about rehabili
Rehabilitation process is a three-stage complex support of a person. The first step of the program is reconvalescence, after which experts are connected with adaptation, secondary socialization of the citizen taking into account the changed life circumstances.
And in more detail?
Reconvalescence is a kind of medical rehabilitation for disabled people, which allows to restore to some extent the psychology, biological functionality of the organism. Work with those aspects that are violated due to the reason that became the basis for assigning the status of a disabled person.
Adaptation is understood as the ability of a living organism to adapt to the changing conditions of everyday life. The concept is complex, includes passive processes of adjusting the needs for the surrounding circumstances of the situation. The second way is active adaptation, coupled with adjusting the environment to their needs. Considering brief characteristics of the types of rehabilitation of disabled people, it should be noted that the adaptation stage in such programs is a method of interaction between the environment and the individual, allowing one to be adjusted to another, and the process is mutual.
Starting all over
Among the main types of rehabilitation for disabled people is readaptation. This is a term describing the process of inclusion in the former life conditions when changing its own level of functionality. As auxiliaries, a person resorts to compensatory abilities. Readaptation is an extremely important stage, in the course of which an individual learns, adapts himself to everyday conditions, develops new opportunities to work. Re-adaptation allows us to enter into various habitats, characteristic of our civilization.
Resocialization is a term describing one of the types of rehabilitation of disabled people. This concept assumes a complex work on restoring the reciprocal links of the affected person and the environment( micro-, macrolevel).This stage is considered final in the modern rehabilitation program. When it passes, you can assess how well the work was organized at previous levels. Efficiency becomes the key to a qualitative, full-fledged inclusion in public life. A person becomes a participant in various social groups, the structures inherent in our civilization. Equally, there is inclusion in all important social spheres of life, not only everyday, everyday, but also creativity, politics, and others.
The above types and their content in the rehabilitation of the disabled as a medical and social program are practiced in our country, including as a tribute to the norms recommended for use by WHO.The specialists of this organization formulated three forms of the consequences of the phenomenon, which leads to the person getting the status of a disabled person. These effects can occur all one-by-one or alternately follow one another. It is customary to talk about three levels, between which there are close mutual ties.
The basic level is biological. The disabled person is a person whose morphofunctional status differs from the standard one, accepted as the norm. There are violations of systems, organs. The second is an organismic one, expressed in the restriction of mobility, social interaction, control of one's body, behavior. Such disorders provoke a decrease in the ability to work, service yourself. Effective types of rehabilitation of disabled people( the concept of this phenomenon also reflects this fact) allow to some extent to compensate for this phenomenon, although success is not possible in 100% of cases. Finally, the third level is social, reflecting broken relationships with the public, family, close ones. Social insufficiency is provoked by various functional disorders and requires a special approach to compensate for this problem.
systemic solution to the problem: what is the rehabilitation of the disabled
"What kinds of rehabilitation" - often just such a question comes to exams to students in courses of social medical sciences. Remembering different varieties, it must be remembered that each of them is aimed at one of the above-mentioned levels of functional disorders. There are three points of application of techniques, three key rehabilitation tasks assigned to specialists and patients working in a team. It is necessary to first achieve the functional recovery of the body's possibilities, then pay attention to the consumer, the public sphere, and to complete the return of the former status of a person by working with qualified psychologists for the successful integration and adaptation to society. It is equally important to pay attention to professional recovery of a person.
The concept and types of rehabilitation of disabled people is a complex area, which includes first of all measures to restore the general state of health. Surgical methods allow to some extent to reconstruct the lost elements of the body, prostheses allow the return of the old functionality. Medical interventions may include orthosis. Optimum recovery can be achieved by passing a spa therapeutic course in a specialized sanatorium.
theme Simultaneously with medical rehabilitation or as this stage passes, another type of rehabilitation for disabled people begins - a return to the person of the opportunity to act in the human community. The individual passes vocational guidance, an educational course. Special services help with finding a suitable workplace and adapting to a particular position.
Successful passage of professional restoration allows you to effectively start social adaptation, adaptation to living conditions, social environment. This requires pedagogical types of rehabilitation of disabled people, assistance from psychologists, sociologists, and socio-cultural opportunities. Having the opportunity to work with specialists, a person can integrate into the society and regain a high level of quality of life. The final stage - physical activities, health courses. The optimal outcome is the inclusion of a person in sports activity with the maximum involvement of all the possibilities of the individual.
The idea of the workflow
All types of rehabilitation of disabled people practiced in modern society are designed for complex impact on the affected individual. The approach is multidisciplinary, allowing people to return to their former abilities( or as closely as possible to approach it).The idea of such an event is the restoration of human abilities, taking into account the potential of a particular person and the world around him( micro, macro).The ideal effect, to which the patient and the doctors working with him should strive, is a multifaceted restoration, systematic, covering various life processes.
Anatomical defects are not an excuse for a person to lose their independence, at least in most cases. The most modern types of technical means for the rehabilitation of disabled people can cope with functional disorders, deviations from the generally accepted social norms in the society, while preserving independence. Rehabilitation activities are aimed at restoring mutual ties between the individual and the world surrounding him. With regard to disability, to some extent, rehabilitation is also prevention related to functioning in society.
Ways and methods
Modern types of rehabilitation of disabled people - this is a rather wide variety of forms of activities. The most common understanding of the term for the majority is medical. In addition to him, they sing out psychological, social rehabilitation, professional, connected with pedagogy. Each aspect has its own distinctive characteristics.
Medical is a kind of rehabilitation for disabled people( children, adults), which involves the restoration of the state of health completely or to some extent. If it is impossible to reverse the pathology, doctors take the possible measures to slow its development, to prevent the complication of the situation. It is necessary to prevent possible relapses. The effectiveness of medical intervention is a basic level, the foundation for all other types of rehabilitation activity.
Continuing the theme of
Psychological types of social rehabilitation of disabled people assume the interaction of the individual with the environment. A person learns to adapt to the demands of the world around him, increases self-awareness, develops a correct attitude towards his condition, defects, pathologies. At the same time, the ability to deal with psychological difficulties is increasing. The citizen mastered new ways of creating productive relationships with other people, including the family, the work collective. An important rehabilitative aspect is emotional, psychological, social assistance, in which the disabled person needs all stages of recovery.
The pedagogical is such a rehabilitation layer, in the implementation of which the individual is trained, develops, educated. The main idea of using funds in the form of rehabilitation of disabled people associated with pedagogy is the acquisition of new social experience, the development of skills, skills that allow themselves to be serviced and provided. Together with this, the norms of behavior in society are mastered. Pedagogy as a component of the rehabilitation program is also a corrective aspect. A special case is the need to interact with people whose defects make learning more difficult. In modern society, special attention is paid to the organization of courses, institutions for training not only the disabled, but also people close to them.
Society and functions
Modern types of social rehabilitation of disabled people assume a complex impact on a person in order to increase the functional abilities of an individual. Both everyday aspects and social aspects are considered. If a person has been destroyed, communications with the society have been lost, rehabilitation measures are being taken as part of the rehabilitation program, recreating relationships with other people. The main goal of the event is the return of the personality of the former status in the society. With a successful program, a person can again be active in society, profession, and everyday life. The individual adapts to the world around him, the requirements of the human community, acquires independence, independence( including material).
Professional is a kind of rehabilitation in which a disabled person gets a new profession or returns to previous activities while maintaining a level of usefulness. In some cases, it is necessary to find a course of career guidance, a special educational program, adaptation. Support services help to find a suitable workplace and function on it, while being useful to society, while simultaneously realizing itself through activity.
This rehabilitation aspect deserves special attention. Social service in our country is organized with the provision of special services to those who need it, related to their needs. Legal norms, declared by the legislation, strictly establish the rules, the boundaries of the protection of the disabled. The laws regulate the social service of people who need such support. This applies not only to those who received the status of a disabled person, but also to many other personalities. But specialized rehabilitation services are preferences, which can only be counted on by persons who have officially issued such a status. The specialized spectrum includes the help of orthopedists, prosthetists, the provision of products for use to facilitate movement.
Within the framework of social adaptation, people are helped to find a suitable place for permanent work activity. Social workers involved in this area, select those activities that are combined with the state not only physiological, but also the psyche of a particular person. Be sure to pay attention to the ability, education, other individual traits of a particular person.
For the first time the need for rehabilitation programs began to be discussed after the First World War. It was then that rehabilitation science began to develop. The impetus for great strength was soon followed by the first second world armed conflict, accompanied by a huge number of victims. At present( if compared with former times) the mortality rate, the incidence has significantly decreased, which is connected with hygiene standards, medical achievements and sanitary conditions of life. There is also the opposite development of the situation: more and more children are born with congenital diseases, which causes them to be recognized as disabled from the tenderest age. All this forces us to develop rehabilitation science further so that all people can lead a full life, economic, social activity, develop intellectually, bring benefits to society and enjoy a worthy quality of life.
Currently, one of the key cultural, civilized indicators of the development of a particular community is the level of assistance to people who do not have sufficient level of social protection. The first in such a list is the disabled. Rehabilitation as a medical science involves interacting with such persons using various methods, the choice of which is based on the personality of a particular person. It is equally important to take into account the specificity of the disease, the presence of links with society, their nature and strength.