Rear hip muscle group: structure, function and exercise
Muscles are of great importance to humans. Everyone knows that almost half of the body weight falls on them, they support it in an upright position and cause the lower limbs to move. In addition, the development of these muscles affects athletic beauty. But because of the complex structure of this area of limbs, there are certain difficulties in the preparation of training complexes. That is why before starting the exercises you need to establish which femoral and pelvic muscles are involved in the movement, and what exercises are necessary for each zone. The hind muscles of the hip perform an extensor movement, anterior flexion. More details about this we will describe below. At the end of the article will also be given exercises for this group of muscles.
Anatomical hip structure
The hip bone is the largest element of this part of the body. Its tubular structure is distinguished by a cylindrical shape, slightly curved forward. The thigh muscles are attached to the bone surface and are divided
- anterior group called flexors;
- leading femoral muscles;
- posterior group, which are called extensors.
Specific signs of musculature are mass and a large extent. In addition, their structure under certain loads develops great strength. What is unique about the hind muscles of the hip? Let's understand.
Back of the hamstrings of the thigh
In the posterior zone of the thigh, the muscle fibers begin from the ischium tuber. In this area they are covered with a large gluteus muscle. When descending downward, they are connected to a large adductor muscle. At the bottom, the posterior group splits into a series of fibers( semimembranous and semitendinous zones), due to which the popliteal fossa is limited in movements. The double-headed femoral muscle, in turn, regulates it from the lateral side.
Thus, the rear group of hamstrings represent such muscle fibers as:
- Two-headed femoral muscle, or hamstrings.
- Spindle-shaped and long muscle that extends over the entire back of the thigh. It consists, as it is defined by the name, of a short and a long head. The long one is fixed to the ischial tubercle of the pelvic bone with the upper end, and to the tibia, that is, to the lower leg.
Anatomy of the back group of hamstrings is unique. Let's consider the function in more detail.
This zone has the following important functions:
- bends the shin and the leg in the knee;
- keeps the balance of the body;
- unbends the thigh( straightens the trunk out of the tilt and pulls back the thigh).
M. biceps femoris also takes an active part in leg folds and movements that require hip retraction, in extension from an inclined position. Inadequate strength and flexibility of the femur biceps often causes poor posture, back pain and pathology of the knee joints.
In this zone there is also a common tendon muscular ligament. Its purpose is to flex the femoral joint, and also unbend the knee joint and rotate it outward in this position.
The semi-tendon ligament is a flat and long muscle that narrows downwards and lies medially, that is, closer to the middle of the body, relative to the biceps femoris muscle. Its upper part is attached to the ischial hump of the pelvic bone, and the lower part is attached to the tibia, that is, the tibia. This part is activated when knee and hip joints are bent, in addition, when the knee is bent, it turns it inwards. Also, the semitendinous zone takes part in the formation of triangular aponeurosis of muscle tissue. What else is attributed to the back group of hamstrings?
Semi-membranous muscular fibers. A flat and long muscle that is located in the posterior internal femoral part. Its upper end is attached to the ischial tubercle of the pelvic bone, and the lower to the different parts of the tibia and the muscular fascia of the tibia. Semimembranous muscle performs the following functions:
- unbends the hip and pulls it back, and also unbends the body from the inclined position;
- flexes the shin( leg in the knee).
Description of the features of muscle fibers
Two femoral heads are included in the femoral biceps, which differ in length from each other. One of them originates in the semi-tendon zone, and the other - in the lateral lip. When they are joined together, their fixation is carried out at the site of the head of the fibula. The double-headed femoral muscle is worked out with the implementation of a deadlift with or without a neck, with lunging, bending of legs in the simulator, etc. In order to avoid stretching the posterior group of hamstrings, it is necessary to increase the elasticity of the fibers.
The beginning of the semitendinous ligament is located in the region of the long femoral head and ends in the tibia near the medial surface. About the semimembranous muscle, we can say that it is located from the ischial hillock and narrows gradually, passing into the muscular abdomen. Consider exercises on the back of the hamstrings.
To work out the back muscle group, you need to do the following exercises.
Running on straight legs. Such an exercise as a deadlift is one of the best in terms of development of the muscles of the posterior femoral surface. It is worth noting that with a significant lag in the development of these muscles or in their recovery after trauma, this exercise needs to be slightly transformed. In this case, it is necessary to establish a leg on a straight leg using a dumbbell. In this case, you need to stand on one leg. In the lowered arms it is necessary to hold dumbbells, the free leg thus leaves back. It is clear that in this exercise it is not allowed to use large weights, which means that you can perform in the approach from fifteen to twenty repetitions. The front thigh muscle group also trains.
When performing them with a barbell it is required and recommended a wide setting of the legs. To sit down it is necessary thus practically up to a touch of a floor by gluteal muscles. It is also worth noting that this manner will not only cause the accelerated growth of the femoral bicep, but also the gluteus muscle. However, the excessively enlarged buttocks do not look very good, which is especially true of men. A more acceptable option are squats with dumbbells in their hands. Such a variant makes it possible to accentuate the load on the femoral bicep.
This exercise in the simulator is one that you can carefully adjust to your goals. If it is necessary to work the biceps femoris muscle, then the legs should be placed closer to the upper edge of the platform. Between stops the distance should be from 35 to 45 centimeters. In this case, the amplitude region is of great importance. Also you need to try to do support not on the whole foot, but on the heels.
Leg bending in the
simulator You can not pass this simulator. It is recommended to perform the movements in turn with each foot, which will allow greater concentration on the functioning of the target muscles. The joint below does not unbend fully, but the leg is thrown upwards until it touches. All the muscles of the hip come in tonus - the front medial and the posterior group.
In the development of the posterior femoral surface and the prevention of injuries, stretching is important. Since the target range is quite large, it is necessary to exert some effort to ensure that the stretching is adequate. It is not necessary to tear a muscle - an ample measured and quiet increase in the amplitude of motion.
In addition to this method, when the leg rises at a right angle in the supine position on the back, you should also use deep attacks. The leg needs to be taken forward and planted on it. With a perfect attack, you should be in a state where you can touch the knee with your chest.
Recommendations for performing exercises
It is worth remembering that before training the back of the hamstrings, dynamic stretching is recommended, and after training the muscle remains in the stretched state for about fifteen seconds. Also, do not stretch the muscle tension, as this will cause painful sensations. Breathing should be shallow and calm, it is in this state that you can catch the moment when there is a stretching of the muscle with a lack of instinctive stress while doing so. Working precisely on the back of the thigh, you can feel this to the greatest extent. Adhering to such simple recommendations, you can move the muscle and reduce the imbalance in its development, as well as prepare for more serious stresses.
The article considers the anatomy and kinesiology of the hind femoris muscles.