Tonic convulsions. Classification of seizures, causes and treatment

Perhaps, there is no person who would not be aware of involuntary muscle contractions, appearing unexpectedly, like an attack, and lasting more often than not for long. But there are people who have this phenomenon become regular, lasts a long time and delivers a lot of problems, affecting both performance and even on personal life. What are the cramps, how they are classified and what tools will help fight them, we will discuss later in the article.

How are cramps classified?

Depending on the nature of involuntary muscular contractions, they are divided into clonic, tonic and clonic-tonic. Tonic - this is a contraction, forcing the limb to solidify in the position of flexion or extension. And the clonic convulsions are characterized by a rapid change in the contraction and relaxation of the muscles, leading to stereotyped movements( twitches) having different amplitude. Accordingly, clonic-tonic - phase changes of clonic and tonic contractions.

Depending on the prevalence of convulsive manifesta

tions, they are divided:

1) on localized( one muscle or their group) - arising from focal stimulation of the motor cortex of the brain, innervating any limb, face, etc.;

2) generalized( whole-body cramps) - they capture immediately all the muscles, usually accompanied by a malfunction of consciousness and may be the final stage of convulsive activity of any type.

Depending on the etiology of the attacks, muscle contractions may not be the same in form, flow and frequency. The peculiarities of the state after the attack, and the data of laboratory studies, are also different.

Causes of seizures

What causes convulsions, to establish in some cases is not so simple, because the cause of their occurrence may be poisoning, nervous system disorders, metabolism, cardiovascular system, brain or endocrine glands. And in some patients, involuntary contractions of the muscles are caused or amplified by the action of external stimuli, for example, from an unexpected loud sound, a needle prick, a bright flashing light, and so on.or with deep breathing and being in a stuffy room.

Similar in form cramps can occur with different diseases and become symptoms of serious pathologies. Therefore, when they occur, you should immediately call your doctor.

Seizures in the child: causes of

In children, the described muscle contractions occur more often than in adults. This is due to the imperfection of the child's nervous system and the peculiarities of the structure of the brain: its cells are easily excited, and the processes of inhibition are still unstable and immature.

Provoking a seizure syndrome in children may result in asphyxia of a newborn, birth trauma, the presence of diabetes in a nursing mother, encephalopathy, and infectious diseases of the nervous system.

But the causes of convulsions in the child causes are not necessarily pathologies of the nervous system or the brain. This may be a lack of calcium in the body or a problem with the muscles. Often in children, these attacks are caused by high fever, a reaction to an inoculation( most often we are talking about DPT), or emotional-psychiatric disorders.

Features of convulsive activity in epilepsy

But the main disease, which is remembered in the first place, speaking of a convulsive syndrome, is epilepsy. The cause of any form of seizures in this disease is an abnormal, very high activity of electrical impulses between neurons of the brain.

Most often, epilepsy is accompanied by generalized clonic-tonic convulsions. Their attack is usually anticipated by the patient with the help of the so-called aura - the state before the attack. It is characterized by a heightened perception of sounds, smells, a sense of fear, anxiety, unusual taste in the mouth.

After this, as a rule, the patient loses consciousness, sometimes succeeding in issuing a rather loud cry or a sound similar to howling. After that, in all his muscles there is a strong tonic tension, the jaws contract, breathing becomes very difficult, the face turns blue and convulsive twitchings begin. At the same time foam appears on the lips of the patient, and involuntary urination may occur.

After a while, breathing is restored, the face assumes a normal color, convulsive tremors become more and more rare and gradually pass. This seizure lasts no more than 3 minutes. After cessation of seizures, a twilight state of consciousness is possible. After that, as a rule, there comes a dream. Waking up, the patient does not remember anything.

Seizures that result from a metabolic disorder

But other conditions can also provoke tonic convulsions, in which the brain has a toxic effect. For example, an increase in temperature, a decrease in the amount of calcium ions in the blood, a drop in the sugar level in it, an inadequate intake of oxygen into the brain.

Cramps at high temperature are caused by loss of fluid and electrolytes( in the form of sodium chloride) due to excessive sweating and insufficient drinking. And the amount of calcium in the blood can decrease as a result of the removal of the parathyroid gland, and it manifests itself by cramps in the muscles of the legs( in calves) or hands. By the way, its level also decreases due to a violation of absorption of this substance in the intestines, caused by kidney disease.

A frequent cause of seizures is intoxication due to poisoning with caffeine, oxalic acid salts, morphine, cocaine, fluorine, atropine, fungi.

What to do with leg cramps?

Of course, if you have regular tonic convulsions, you should definitely consult a doctor for a full survey and find out their causes. Short-term same spasms can be tried and removed on their own.

So, if this unpleasant phenomenon bothers your lower limbs, you need:

  • to pull the toe of the straightened leg to itself;
  • put your feet on the cold floor and walk barefoot;
  • rub the leg with warming ointment;
  • make self-massage of the foot - from the fingers to the heel, or calves - from the heel to the knee;
  • if there are no contraindications, take "Aspirin" tablets( they will improve blood microcirculation in the vessels of the legs).

Help in this case, and home ointment from seizures. It is made of 2 tsp.mustard and 1 tsp.olive oil. This gruel is smeared with suffering muscles, and relief comes almost immediately.

Convulsions in hands - a problem that can be dealt with

Hand cramps can be attributed to occupational health problems, as they are especially affected by office workers who spend a lot of time at the computer, musicians, tailors, athletes, etc. But doctors also call othercauses that can cause them:

  • stress,
  • upper limb blood supply disorders due to osteochondrosis or cardiovascular problems,
  • hypothermia of the skin of hands,
  • food poisoning or alcohol,
  • as well as a passion for coffee.

Convulsions of the hands, as a rule, disturb in one hand, so if they appear healthy massage the spasmed arm. Rub your fingers, starting from the base, squeeze and unclench the fist, vigorously turn the brush, stretch and relax your fingers.

Those with muscle spasms appear periodically, doctors advise to drink chamomile or lime tea, which can relax them, or for 2 weeks twice a day rub the places prone to spasms with lemon juice. If the problem begins to occur too often, you should contact a specialist to find out the true causes of the problem and the selection of medicines.

What are the dangerous jerky muscle contractions?

As can be seen from everything said above, both clonic and tonic convulsions can be associated with serious problems in the functioning of the brain or endocrine disorders. In addition, during these spasms, a huge oxygen deficiency is formed in the brain, which, of course, can not but affect the metabolic processes. Children suffer from this intellect, personal changes occur, a gap in physical development is revealed. This condition is equally dangerous for adults.

In severe cases, seizures can be a reason for stopping breathing and even death of the patient. Therefore, they can not be ignored or attempted to dispose of independently, this condition requires accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment.

Muscle cramps: treatment with

Treatment of seizures involves dealing with the underlying cause that caused them. So, with their neurogenic nature, drugs that eliminate vegetative dysfunction - sedative, tranquilizing and vegetotrophic actions( "Mezapam", "Bellataminal", "Sibazon", etc.) are used. In the hysterical form of convulsive seizure, psychotherapy sessions are conducted and remedies used to eliminate anxiety( "Frenolone", "Phenazepam", etc.) or the state of depression( "Aminotriptyline", "Azafen", etc.).

In case of epilepsy, the patient is prescribed for a continuous intake of pills from seizures, which increase the content of mediators of inhibition: Finlepsin, Carbamazepine, Benzonal and others, as well as dehydration preparations( Furasemide).

Local convulsions are also treated with an impact on the underlying problems - the elimination of areas of muscle hypertonia with the help of novocain blockades and physiotherapy.

Some tips at last

Periodically repeating tonic convulsions - is a symptom that requires a mandatory call to a doctor, and to which, try to determine for yourself.

  • If you have an anamnesis of atherosclerosis, osteochondrosis and similar diseases, contact a neurologist.
  • If there are leg vascular diseases( varicose veins, venous insufficiency), then you should help a vascular surgeon or phlebologist.
  • Give blood to electrolytes and sugar, this will help to eliminate the presence of metabolic causes for muscle spasms.
  • And in the absence of obvious reasons, please contact the endocrinologist or neurologist for examination.