Endocardium is what? Structure and functions
Endocardium is an inner shell covered with endothelium and constituting cells of connective tissue. This element is designed to cover the heart muscle from the inside, it is from it that the valves( semilunar, valvular) are formed. Valve flaps are the attachment point of the tendon threads. Semilunar valves are located near the aortic, pulmonary trunk. Valves can prevent the wrong direction of blood flow.
What is the heart?
We all know that this organ is vitally important for humans. Usually people imagine it in the form of such a pump, rhythmically pumping the blood. It is the heart - this is the main component of the circulation of blood, lymph in our body. The heart simultaneously represents both a layered structure with three membranes, and a parenchymal complex, since parenchyma and stroma are present.
- pump( abbreviations allow you to control the level of pressure);
- endocrine( production of natriuretic factor);
- informative( encoding data on the state of t
Based on the information transferred from the heart to the individual tissues of the body, metabolic activity is corrected.
This is a system formed by four layers:
- elastic muscles;
- external connective tissue.
And if more?
The first endocardial layer is the endothelium located directly on the basal membrane. It is formed by the flat cells located in one layer, lining the surface of the organ. Subendothelium is a rather loose structure, created from cells of connective tissue, but not shaped as the outer part. In fact, the two layers described together perform all the functionality that is assigned to the shells that cover the blood vessels from the inside.
The layer of elastic muscles, as already seen from its very name, is formed by myocytes. Elastic fibers also participated in the creation of this endocardial element of the heart. If we draw parallels with the structure of the vascular system, the muscular elastic membrane is comparable with the average vascular. Finally, the connecting layer is located outside. Its structure is rather loose, the fabric is not formed to the end. If to compare with the vascular system, the external part performs the same functions as the external envelope of blood vessels. The connective tissue provides the connection between the endocardium and the myocardium. It sprouts into the stroma.
valves Endocardium is an element of the heart system that forms valves, that is, dense fibrous plates that are created from connective cells. Valves are characterized by a relatively low concentration of cells adjacent to the endothelium.
The atrial is usually smooth, the opposite is covered with outgrowths, allowing to fix the tendons and provide the heart with a stable rhythmic work. The endocardium of the heart contains blood vessels in the layer of connective tissue from the outside, and cell nutrition is provided through diffusion processes of absorption of components from blood volumes located directly in the heart. In addition, oxygen and the necessary trace elements are supplied from the vascular network forming the outer layer.
Anatomical features of
The heart structure is rather difficult: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium are present in different thicknesses in different elements of the organ. So, regarding the treated tissue doctors say that its thickness is inversely proportional to the muscular power of a particular site. For example, in the left atrium the layer will be quite thick, but in the ventricle - on the contrary. However, regardless of location, the three-layered structure of the endocardium is necessarily preserved.
Endothelium covering the endocardium allows one to cope with this element of the cardiac system with significant loads due to the adjustment of the force of influence of the blood flow. In addition, metabolic products that actively pass through the subendothelium and blood plasma also exert a strong influence on the endothelium itself. Endocardium consists of endotheliocytes, whose morphology is directly determined by the conditions of tissue functioning at a particular site.
In the ventricle to the left they are rather flat cells of polygonal shape. A distinctive feature is the evenness of the contours. But on the right side, the cells themselves are much larger, in some places their dimensions drop out of the general norm, the shape can vary considerably. Telling, what are the features of the structure and function of the endocardium, doctors necessarily pay attention to the cells that make up this tissue in the field of false tendons. These are polyhedral structures that are located either in the transverse direction, or completely without orientation.
Slots separating the endothelial cells from each other, for valves, filaments of the fiber, are characterized by thin, complex configurations that are significantly distinguished in comparison, for example, with trabecular tissue. At the same time, the structure and functions of the endocardium make it necessary to take into account the fact that the elements of the fiber and valves do not have a clear orientation in space.
What else to pay attention to?
When considering the structure of the endocardium, it is necessary to devote time to the part, which by virtue of its anatomical structure is in constant contact with the blood. These elements are covered with glycocalysis - an organic material that prevents the formation of thrombi. If you look closely at the relief of this area, it becomes apparent that it is similar to a monolayer of the endothelium.
Atriums are characterized by a flat surface of the tissue in question. Endocardium in the endothelial part is a subendothelial layer of small thickness. The main component of this tissue is collagenous, having a mesh form, dense, when examined under a microscope it exhibits a fine-fibrillar structure. All this complex of cells, as can be concluded in the study of the structure of the myocardium, is in the intercellular substance diluted with cambium.
Specific features of the
fabric The formation under consideration covers the myocardium - all its surfaces. In a healthy organism, there will simply be no exceptions. Through this, the basic value of the endocardium is realized, designed to protect the myocardium and to ensure the possibility of normal functioning of the heart muscle as a whole. Endocardium covered all the arms, muscles, papillae, tissue elements near the holes.
It is equally important to remember that the endocardial covering the myocardium creates a certain similarity of the heart with the arteries of the human body. The main similarities have already been indicated above. This allows the cardiovascular system to be uniform, uniform, efficiently functioning as a complex set of interrelated organs.
Everything is thought out!
Blood cells are rather delicate structures that can be disturbed by the slightest negative external influences. To prevent this from happening, nature provides a glycoprotein coating of cells from which an endocardium is formed( an epicardium covering the muscular tissue from the outside, also has special protection, but of a different nature).If you carefully examine the cells of the endocardium, you can see that they seem to be polished. Due to this feature, blood cells do not break their structure, passing through the heart and blood vessels - and even the slightest roughness would threaten them. If the endothelial cells are defective, a chain reaction will begin: the blood will begin to clot.
One of the features of the endocardium( formed by a layer of special cells - endotheliocytes) - the ability to form folds in the holes inside the heart. For example, at the base of the pulmonary artery trunk, aorta, you can see three folds, similar in shape to the pockets. A slightly larger trinity is located near the atrioventricular aperture on the right, only two on the left of the pockets. The key feature of folds is mobility, due to which lumens are closed, open. The well-coordinated system is somewhat similar to the steam valves, only the role of steam in our body is played by blood.
This term refers to inflammation of the endocardium - a serious disease. Most often it is provoked by local infection. The endocardium suffers, in most cases the valves are the first to be affected. The work of these elements provides normal blood flow, similar to the phases of cardiac activity, but inflammation interferes with the functioning of the organ. If the disease is not treated, has not been cured or is relapsing, the probability of obtaining a valve defect, that is, a permanent defect, is high.
In most cases, the heart develops secondary inflammation, which is provoked by similar processes in other organs and tissues. It can be a relapse or a result of chronic pathology. Quite often infectious agents penetrate from the tonsils, ovaries. There are cases when the cause was in recurrent infections of a general nature. To such complication, in particular, the flu can lead.
How to suspect?
Inflammation affects the endocardial function, so patients come to the hospital with complaints of increased fatigue, dyspnea accompanying minimal physical exertion. Often chronically kept high temperature, it is possible even fever for a long time. In the inflammatory process heart rate increases, but the pulse is palpable slightly, while its speed increases sharply with minimal physical activity. Also, with inflammation of the endocardium, pale skin, soreness and a feeling of tightness near the heart are noted.
To restore the endocardial function, it is necessary to undergo a therapeutic course. The inflammatory process is not easy to conquer, usually the program is delayed for a long time and is quite hard for patients. It is known that endocarditis significantly reduces the quality of life. To determine the optimal therapeutic program, it is important to carefully assess the condition of a person in advance. For this, a detailed examination is performed by a cardiologist. It is this doctor who will be responsible for further treatment of the patient until full recovery.
Classical treatment program
As a rule, the traditional approach obliges to combine the following factors:
- minimal heart burden;
- removal of the infectious focus;
- antibacterial, antiviral program;
- antirheumatic therapy;
- cardiotonic course, which allows to maintain the normal system of blood supply to organs and tissues.
As an auxiliary technique, you can resort to folk methods, diets, climate therapy, healing mud, water, plants.
Herbs against endocarditis
Various medicinal herbs will help in the fight against inflammatory processes. Most often resort to collections, which include chamomile, licorice, arnica, mullein, calendula, St. John's wort, goldenrod and verbena. Before starting such treatment, you need to consult with your doctor and pay attention to the possibility of allergies. All these plants have a rather strong positive effect on the body, but they can provoke negative reactions - many cases of allergy are known. In addition, do not wait for such a drug to be "delicious", many are unhappy even with its smell. Doctors emphasize: you do not just have to resort to herbs to support the state of the body and eliminate inflammation, but apply them only in conjunction with the main drug course.
The following herbs are considered useful for the heart, which can additionally bring down the heat: willow bark, elder flowers, linden inflorescences, labaznik, black currant, raspberry. For anesthetic effect, you can take infusions and decoctions containing motherwort, valerian, melissa, hops, bark of cinchona.
Weather, mud and water
For effective completion of the therapeutic program and successful rehabilitation course it is worthwhile to practice mud and climate treatment. But at the stage of acute inflammation, these methods are contraindicated. Do not combine the methods with the pharmacological course. During the basic treatment in the fresh air it is best to lie down to minimize the load. But at the stage of rehabilitation, small walks have a good toning effect.
Hydrotherapy, which allows to restore health in case of heart diseases, usually comes down to warm irrigation, hygienic baths. To resort to such procedures it is possible only at the permission of the attending physician, as in an acute phase it can essentially aggravate a status of the patient.
Proper nutrition is the guarantee of health
It is recommended to eat endocarditis frequently and in small portions. Allowed only light meals that do not create stress on the body. It is advisable to drink juices, eat honey. You can eat pollen. Physicians are allowed natural coffee, but only in small quantities, if the patient suffers from reduced pressure.
I will completely abandon any bad habits. Inflammatory processes are exacerbated by both smoking and alcoholic beverages, so they are strictly forbidden for the period of treatment and prolonged rehabilitation.
How to avoid complications?
Endocarditis is dangerous not only in itself, but also an increased likelihood of developing a variety of complications. The key rule of prevention is careful compliance with the doctor's recommendations. If processes allow one to suspect that cardiac malformations begin to develop, it is important to minimize experiences and reduce physical stress. The stronger the voltage, the higher the probability of irreversible processes and the greater the speed of their passage.
For prevention, a rather important aspect is the optimization of the diet. The regimens should be such that the load is minimized in the heart, at the same time it is necessary to compare products effective as measures to prevent atherosclerosis, which is especially dangerous in endocarditis: narrowing of the coronary arterial blood vessels leads to oxygen deficiency in the myocardium.
The most useful are the generally accepted medical nutrition programs 10, 10a. The first involves minimizing the amount of salt entering the body. Also, you will have to give up fat, spicy, alcoholic beverages that increase the load on the heart muscle, directly or indirectly.
Generally, you should eat foods from the following list:
- bread made from bran flour;
- vegetables, fruits;
- soups without fat;
- fish, lean meat in boiled form;
- confectionery products( but black chocolate is forbidden);
- dairy products.
If you have a responsible attitude to the nutrition program and regularly visit a doctor, you can not be afraid of relapses. If heart diseases are already present, adhering to such a program, you can minimize discomfort caused by a disorder of health, as well as reduce heart failure.
Complications of endocarditis
Consequences of this disease can persecute even patients whose main inflammatory process was defeated rather quickly. Some complications only slightly restrict daily routine, others are dangerous to humans and can provoke a fatal outcome.
The most common effects of the inflammatory disease are as follows:
- cardiac failure in chronic form;
- continued infection of tissues;
This complication is typical for a wide list of heart diseases and is found in many people. The condition is pathological, characterized by the impossibility of pumping the blood masses in the quantity necessary for the normal functioning of the body. Endocarditis often leads to problems of contractions of the muscular tissues of the heart, because of which the volume of the organ chambers decreases. Even more common pathological condition, provoked by abnormalities in the valves - narrowing of this area, perforation of the valves. All this leads to an irregular blood flow.