Parenchymal jaundice: symptoms, causes, diagnosis

Today, there are many different diseases that people do not face very often. However, you still need to know about them at least a little. After all, for example, you can prevent the occurrence of such problems. For this very reason, now I want to talk about such a pathology as parenchymal jaundice.

Terminology

Before you deal with the disease itself, you need to determine the concepts that will be actively used in this article. So, parenchymal jaundice is a disease, or rather, a special symptom complex, characterized by the coloration of the icteric color of not only the skin, but also the mucous membranes( sclera of the eyes).All this is due to the fact that in the body of the patient gradually begins to accumulate bilirubin( this is a bile pigment).It is also important to note that this symptom complex indicates that the patient has problems with the liver, which need to be resolved as soon as possible.

It is interesting that in medicine there is also the concept of false jaundice. In this cas

e, in the human body, not bilirubin, but carotene, a natural substance, accumulates due to which the dyeing of the skin takes place. So, this can happen if too often and in large quantities to consume carrots, pumpkin, oranges, as well as beets. A similar problem can arise if you consume picric acid for a long time, as well as some other medications.

Clinical picture of

How does a pathology such as parenchymal jaundice occur? The pathogenesis of the disease is as follows. So, initially it should be noted that during normal operation, bilirubin, the bile pigment, is excreted from the body naturally. If there are certain problems in the work of the liver, it begins to accumulate gradually in the body, signaling this by yellowing the skin and mucous membranes. Looking through the information on what parenchymal jaundice is, it is important to say also that this problem has three main stages of development.

  1. The first stage. In this case, the activity of enzymes decreases, the hepatocyte membranes are damaged, direct bilirubin ceases to be normally produced.
  2. In the second stage of , patients have such a problem as hyperfermentia, the permeability of hepatocyte membranes is increased. Pain in the side appears due to squeezing the capillaries.
  3. In the third stage of , a process of glucuronization of bilirubin occurs, liver failure occurs. Also, urine becomes very light, pain in the side is constantly felt.

It is worth noting that it is very important to begin to combat parenchymal jaundice at the very first stages of the onset of the disease. After all, in this case, you can cope with the problem much easier and faster. If, however, "tighten" the beginning of the process of recovery to the third stage, then it will be very difficult to cure this disease.

Causes of the

problem Why can parenchymal jaundice occur, what are the main causes of its occurrence?

  • First of all, it should be noted that the main problem in this case are infectious agents: these are viruses, bacteria, toxins. Most often in this case, we are talking about such diseases as malaria, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, etc.
  • The defeat of hepatocides with poisons both organic and inorganic. Toxic poisoning of the body can occur due to the use of poisonous fungi, poor quality alcohol, after taking arsenic or a snake bite.
  • The administration of certain medications that have a hepatotoxic effect may also lead to this problem. In this case, most often it is a preparation such as "Paracetamol" or antibiotics.

Heredity

Considering the causes of parenchymal jaundice, it must also be said that this disease also has a hereditary factor. That is, it can be transmitted by gender from one member of the family to another.

  • There may be a lack of specific ligandine proteins that are placed on the surface of the liver.
  • The cause may be a hereditary deficiency of a specific enzyme called UDP-glucuronyltransferase.
  • The hereditary is Wilson-Konovalov's disease, when copper accumulates in the hepatocytes, because of this genetic defect the functionality of this organ is disrupted.

The main symptomatology of

Considering such a disease as parenchymal jaundice, symptoms - this is what also needs to be told. So, what manifestations does this disease have?

  1. First of all, yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes, mainly the sclera of the eyes, attests to this problem.
  2. The patient may also have mild itching. There is a headache, a fever, a migraine.
  3. Often patients complain of loss of appetite, resulting in a loss of body weight.
  4. There are also muscle aches and general weakness.

Indicators of analysis also change.

  • The feces become light, slightly colored. Everything happens due to the loss of sterocilin, another bile pigment.
  • Urine also changes color. Can be either too light or too dark.
  • In the blood of patients, the content of direct and indirect bilirubin increases.

Diagnosis

How can you understand that a person has parenchymal jaundice? Diagnosis - that's what will tell you about the existence of this disease. For this it is necessary: ​​

  1. Conduct a general analysis of urine, feces, and blood.
  2. Evaluation of the overall clinical picture.
  3. Biochemical blood test.
  4. Certain instrumental studies can be assigned.

Clinical analyzes of

If the patient has had an analysis of feces and urine, then in this disease the bilirubin and urobilin levels increase significantly, and the amount of sterocilin falls, which causes a weak coloration of the human excreta.

Blood tests will also be needed. In this case, leukocytosis and anemia can be observed. If the patient has parenchymal jaundice, the biochemistry of the blood is what is also important. Here, the indices of bound and unbound bilirubin and urobilin will be increased.

In some cases, the patient will be assigned and other additional studies. It can be:

  • Determination of the level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the blood.
  • Definition of oncomarkers.
  • Coprogram: analysis of parasites and helminths.

Instrumental research

An experienced specialist can easily distinguish the syndrome of parenchymal jaundice from a full-blown disease. However, in some cases, even the most famous luminaries of medicine to confirm the diagnosis requires additional instrumental research. In this case, the patient can be assigned:

  1. Radiography .To identify problems with the stomach, esophagus and intestines.
  2. Cholecystography .It is necessary to understand if there are stones in the gallbladder.
  3. US can provide information about the condition of the liver and other vital organs.
  4. CT or MRI .

Very rarely, patients are prescribed a liver biopsy.

Treatment of

It should be noted that this pathology has several ways of disposal. Everything depends on the degree of neglect of the underlying disease. Most often, doctors prescribe drugs that remove excess bilirubin from the body. However, medication does not always help. In this case, doctors can prescribe a procedure such as phototherapy. And all because the ultraviolet is able to quickly break down the molecules of bilirubin and help their prompt removal. In this disease, it is also important to take a complex of vitamins, especially B and C, lipoic acid and amino acids.

Prevention and Complications

Since parenchymal jaundice is a symptom complex that occurs against a background of other diseases( viral hepatitis B and C, stones in the bladder, etc.), it is very important to start getting rid of these diseases in time. After all, we must remember that if you do not help the patient in time, it can result in certain complications. Namely: the patient can irretrievably break the work of the liver and gallbladder. At the same time, an increased concentration of bilirubin causes an intoxication of the body, which has a very negative effect on the work of all its organs and systems.