Forms and types of medical care
At the moment there are several types of medical care. There are ambulances, which are also specialized. Primary health care. It is divided into pre-medical, medical and specialized. And we are talking about a specialized one, which is medical and highly technical.
What is first aid?
First aid is the activities that take place at the scene. The further life and condition of the victim completely depends on it.
As a rule, a first aid kit is used to provide assistance, which must be mandatory for motorists, in any educational institutions, in enterprises and so on. If it is not, then you should use improvised materials.
The individual medicine chest should have bundles, bandages, tires, cotton wool. In addition, some medicines and medications should be used. It is about alcohol, validol, antiseptic, vaseline and so on.
Types of first aid
Consider options for first aid. They differ due to the qualification of medical personnel, and also depending on the place of urgent events.
Distinguish the help, which is carried out in the first place. It should be provided at the scene of the crime before the ambulance arrives.
If it is a question of the first pre-medical care, then they spend it in the car of the arrived specialists. And this is done directly by a medical worker. It can also be provided at the scene of the incident or at a special obstetric center.
In addition, first aid can be provided in a hospital in a hospital. It is called qualified.
Also, if we are talking about specialized medical care, then we are already talking about a complex of activities that take place in special institutions.
Methods of rendering
Also it is necessary to say about the types of first aid. There are several resuscitation measures.
The first is artificial respiration. If a person suddenly stops breathing, then he needs to hold this event. How to do it? It is necessary to clean the mouth and nose of mucus, any objects, if any, of blood. Next, put a gauze dressing or some kind of cloth on the mouth of the victim. So a person who provides first aid will be able to protect himself from infection. Next, throw back the victim's head. After that, you need to pinch the patient's nose, take a quick breath into your mouth. If artificial respiration is carried out correctly, then the chest will rise slightly.
Further it is necessary to tell about carrying out of indirect massage of heart. This is done if the person does not have a pulse. It is necessary to put the victim on a firm, level surface. The base of the palm should be placed above the narrow part of the sternum, covering with the other hand. Fingers need to be raised and make quick pressure on the chest. As a rule, heart massage is combined with the above-described method - artificial respiration. Approximately two exhalations of the mouth in the mouth should be alternated with 15-20 pressure.
Another form and type of medical care is the application of a tourniquet. This exercise should be done if a person has a bleeding, which is accompanied by the fact that the vessels were ruptured. The tourniquet should be placed above the wound, under it a soft bandage should be placed. If there is no staffing tool, then you can use a scarf or tie. However, it is necessary to record the time when the tourniquet was applied, and also to attach this paper to the clothes of the victim, so that the incoming physicians did not lose their heads and knew what to do next.
It described the main forms of care that are aimed at reanimating a person if he lacks vital functions. If it is a question of other problems, then there are many more ways. It should be understood that the first medical help can be provided only if the person knows what he is doing and can.
We consider the following type of medical care.
Specialized type is an important component of preventive care for any person. The extent to which it will be carried out qualitatively depends on its form, methods of work, and the qualifications of the doctors themselves.
Specialized care is rendered in hospitals, in inpatient departments, special centers that operate on the basis of clinics, as well as in territorial institutions, that is, women's clinics, dispensaries and so on.
The main role in providing this type of assistance belongs to dispensaries. This institution is an independent specialized institution that assists certain types of patients. To date, there are several dispensaries. This is cardiological, anti-tuberculosis, narcological and many others. It is designed to serve the population not only of a certain region, but also of the region and the district. The dispensary, as a rule, is divided into two parts. This is a polyclinic and a hospital. Here, not only is specialized medical care provided. But also a study is being conducted, the incidence of, the spread of any diseases is studied, actively helps the residents of the district, registering them and conducting special treatment.
Speaking about what types of free medical care exist on the territory of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to say about the ambulance. This is the kind that all residents get if they need urgent medical intervention. In this case we are talking about diseases, any accidents, injuries, poisonings and so on.
At the moment in the Russian Federation, emergency medical services are provided by emergency stations. In addition, such a right has hospitals in cities and villages.
Medical care stations are established in large settlements and areas where the population is more than 50 thousand people. These establishments are independent institutions, sometimes they can be part of city hospitals. In the latter case, they are considered structural units.
If there are fewer inhabitants in the locality, emergency departments are created at the city or central hospitals. If we are talking about remote areas, then there are institutions for emergency and advisory assistance. At the same time they work on the basis of the regional hospital.
The first category station is one that receives more than 70 thousand calls a year. Accordingly, the second is from 50 thousand to 75 thousand, the third - from 20 thousand to 50 thousand and the fourth - from 10 thousand to 25 thousand.
If we are talking about the first and second category, then they are independent. Accountable to the city health authority. The stations of the third and fourth categories work at large hospitals and are considered medical and preventive institutions.
Forms of providing medical assistance
The list of types of medical assistance was listed above. Next, consider the forms that exist at the moment. As a rule, medical care is provided in several variants.
There is a sanitary aviation. There is also inpatient care, traditional, outpatient, medical, palliative, rehabilitative, inpatient and rehabilitation. Let us briefly consider each of these forms.
The above form and type of medical care has already been considered. It's about first aid. In short, this is a pre-hospital or qualifying event. They need to be done without any round-the-clock surveillance. Typically, it consists of affordable services that can be provided at the level of an ordinary person or society.
The list of complexes should include sanitary work, anti-epidemic measures, disease prevention, treatment and diagnosis of common diseases, poisoning and so on.
PHC can be provided by therapists, pediatricians, midwives, general practitioners, paramedics and so on. The way organizations that render first aid work is completely built on the territorial principle. This allows people to have affordable medicine at their place of residence. In some situations, the right to choose an organization is given.
Consultative and diagnostic assistance
This is a question of the form and type of medical care of a specialized type. The patient is treated with therapeutic complexes that prevent the development of the disease and eliminate it. However, the form differs from more serious treatment in that a person is without a round-the-clock observation.
This type of assistance is a qualified action for the implementation of which a special technique is used. Inpatient treatment differs from other types of medical care in that it turns out to be around the clock. That is, a person is in a hospital. At the same time, care and nutrition are provided at the state level.
Next, it is necessary to say about the following type of care. This is the form in which pre-hospital or qualified and specialized treatment complexes are performed. From a stationary type of medical care is different in that a person is monitored for one day from four to eight hours.
Emergency medical care
Above we have already described the intricacies of providing such assistance. However, let's sum up a little. This form is used if a person needs emergency intervention in order to eliminate the threat to life or prevent significant harm to health. This type of medical assistance is completely free and it is forbidden to provide it for money.
This form is also considered an emergency aid, however it differs in that it is provided by physicians specially arrived at the destination. It happens that the medical institution sends a machine that must transport the victim. The fact is that sometimes in hospitals at the place of residence there is no special equipment or personnel, so doctors are called to the scene.
Rehabilitation and rehabilitation
What kinds of medical care remains to be considered? Rehabilitation is one of them. This species appears to those people who have congenital or acquired diseases. Also, such help should be applied to those who have received the consequences of acute or chronic diseases. At the same time, it is carried out either in rehabilitation departments or in sanitation facilities.
This is a type of specialized medical care that is provided to people with incurable diseases in the terminal stage. At the same time they make such assistance both in the hospital and at home. Sometimes it happens that you need nursing care. As a rule, it is used in cases when already medical supervision is not required.