What to do with carbon monoxide poisoning, how to provide first aid?
In our article, we will discuss the question of what to do with carbon monoxide poisoning? On how correctly and quickly the first aid is rendered to the victim, it often depends not only on his further health, but also on whether he remains alive.
What is carbon monoxide?
"Quiet killer" - this is what the people call carbon monoxide. This is one of the most powerful poisons that can kill a living creature in just a few minutes. The chemical formula of this gaseous compound is CO( one carbon atom and one oxygen atom).Another name for carbon monoxide is carbon monoxide. This air mixture has neither color nor smell.
CO is formed from any type of combustion: from burning fuel in heat and power plants, from burning a fire or gas stove, from the operation of an internal combustion engine, from a smoldering fire of a cigarette, etc.
Toxic properties of carbon monoxide are known to mankind from ancient times. Our distant ancestors were well aware of how dangerous it is to shut off the oven draft with
With the development of civilization, the danger associated with carbon monoxide has not diminished. After all, instead of furnaces in the homes of modern people, gas boilers and stoves are actively working, cars are puffing in the streets and in garages with poisonous vapors, and in the news periodically there are reports of tragic accidents connected with poisoning of SO.
How does carbon monoxide work on the human body?
Carbon monoxide has the ability to bind hemoglobin molecules, thereby preventing the transfer of blood oxygen. The longer a person breathes poisonous air, in which there is carbon monoxide, the faster the pathological process develops. In the blood, a carboxyhemoglobin substance is formed. The cells of the body do not receive life-giving oxygen, there is a headache, a person begins to experience suffocation, consciousness is confused. The victim does not realize what is happening to him, in this case independent rendering of first aid in case of carbon monoxide poisoning becomes impossible. Help must come from other people.
To ensure that the hemoglobin has completely cleared of carbon monoxide, it takes a long time. The danger to life is directly related to the increase in the concentration of CO in the air and the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. If the accumulation of carbon monoxide in the air is only 0.02-0.03%, then in 5-6 hours the content of carboxyhemoglobin in human blood will be 25-30%.
Rescue actions for carbon monoxide poisoning should be very fast, because if the CO concentration reaches only 0.5%, the carboxyhemoglobin will grow to deadly values after 20-30 minutes.
What are the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning?
Toxic effects of CO on the body can be manifested by the following symptoms:
- When a man is poisoned with carbon monoxide in an easy degree, he can feel weakness, tinnitus, headache, nausea, and vomiting. These signals are evidence of oxygen starvation, which is experienced by the brain.
- With moderate poisoning, the symptoms of intoxication are increasing. There is a shiver in the muscles, a brief loss of memory, a violation of coordination of movements. A person can stop distinguishing colors, objects begin to bifurcate in the eyes. Later, the respiratory function and the circulatory system are disturbed. The patient develops tachycardia and cardiac arrhythmia. If a person does not receive quick help at this stage, then a loss of consciousness and a subsequent lethal outcome occur.
- Severe degree of CO poisoning is accompanied by irreversible lesions of brain cells. The victim can fall into a coma and stay there for a week or more. At this time the patient has strong convulsive seizures, uncontrolled urination and defecation. Breathing is usually superficial and intermittent, the body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees. Perhaps the onset of paralysis of the breath and the onset of death. The survival prognosis depends on the depth and duration of coma.
When can CO poisoning occur?
With normal ventilation and a well-functioning extractor, carbon monoxide is quickly removed from the premises without causing any harm to the people there. Nevertheless, according to statistics, more than a million and a half people die from carbon monoxide poisoning in the world every year. In a number of cases this occurs for reasons beyond the control of a person, for example, in a fire. Usually people who have fallen into the fire, lose consciousness, inhaling deadly gas, and can not get out of the fire trap themselves.
CO poisoning is also possible in the following cases and circumstances:
- In rooms with stove or fireplace heating( houses, baths, etc.) with untimely closing of the exhaust flaps or with poor extraction.
- In rooms where gas appliances work( water flow heaters, plates, gas boilers, heat generators with an open combustion chamber);if there is insufficient inflow of air necessary for burning gas, as well as with disturbed draft in the chimney.
- In production workshops, where CO is used as a working substance for the synthesis of certain organic substances( phenol, methyl alcohol, acetone, etc.).
- If you are in the vicinity of a busy highway or directly on it( on most major highways, the CO content in the air can exceed the permissible standards by several times).
- In garages, with the engine running and lack of ventilation.
Carbon monoxide poisoning - first aid
It's important to act very quickly, remembering that the time count goes not just for minutes, but even for seconds. What should I do with carbon monoxide poisoning in the first place? The sequence of actions should be as follows:
- Quickly open all windows and doors and take the person out of the room.
- Call a specialized ambulance team. When making a call, you need to describe the problem as clearly as possible to the operator taking the call, so that the physicians with the necessary equipment are directed to the victim.
- If a person has lost consciousness after poisoning with carbon monoxide, it is necessary to put it on its side. Next, bring to his nose a fleece impregnated with ammonia( at a distance of 2 cm from the nostrils) and gently wave it. Remember that if ammonia is brought too close, the powerful action of ammonia can lead to paralysis of the respiratory center.
- If a person does not breathe, then immediately begin to do artificial respiration. If the victim not only lost consciousness, but he also lacks signs of cardiac activity, then artificial respiration should be supplemented by an indirect massage of the heart. Such first aid in case of carbon monoxide poisoning should be done until the arrival of a medical team or until a person begins to actively show signs of life.
- In the event that the poisoned person is conscious, he must be laid and try to ensure the maximum influx of fresh air. For this purpose, you can fan his newspaper, turn on the air conditioner and fan. To the feet you must put a warm water bottle or mustard. A considerable benefit to the victim can be brought by alkaline drink( for 1 liter of warm water - 1 tablespoon of soda).
What to do with carbon monoxide poisoning, how to provide first aid, we found out. Now let's talk about one very important point: people involved in providing assistance, it is important to protect themselves. Taking out a person from a poisoned room, you need to cover your airways with gauze or a handkerchief.
What kind of treatment is carried out in a hospital?
Victims with moderate or severe poisoning are subject to mandatory hospitalization. The main antidote is 100% oxygen. Its uninterrupted intake into the body in the amount of 9-16 l / min.occurs through a special mask applied to the patient's face.
In severe cases, the patient is intubated with a trachea and is connected to an artificial lung ventilator. In an inpatient setting, infusion therapy with the use of a drip-line with sodium hydrogencarbonate is also done - this helps to correct hemodynamic disorders. For intravenous infusion, solutions such as "Chlosol" and "Quartazol" are also used.
Another drug used by doctors to help the victim with carbon monoxide poisoning is Acizol. This agent is injected into the body intramuscularly. Its action is based on the acceleration of the decomposition of carboxyhemoglobin with simultaneous saturation of the blood with oxygen."Acisol" reduces the toxic effect of CO on muscle tissue and nerve cells.
Carbon monoxide poisoning with
folk remedies The following folk medicine recipes can be used at home with an easy degree of carbon monoxide poisoning. Here are simple home remedies with very effective antitoxic properties:
- Tincture of dandelion( only roots are used).To prepare the infusion of 10 g of finely divided dry raw material, you must pour a glass of steep boiling water. Boil for about 20 minutes.and then press for 40 minutes. After filter and dilute with warm water( 100 ml).Take the remedy 3 or 4 times a day on a tablespoon.
- Cranberry-cranberry tincture. What to do after poisoning with carbon monoxide with it? First, 200 g of cranberries and 150 g of hips are needed for cooking. Ingredients are rubbed as carefully as possible and poured 350 ml of steep boiling water. Infuse berries for 3 hours, then strain the agent and ingest 5 to 6 times a day for 2 tablespoons.spoons.
- Tincture of herb spores.3 tbsp. Spoons of crushed dry sponges are poured in 0.5 liters of boiling water. Infuse for at least 3 hours, then strain and drink 3 times a day for a glass.
- Tincture of rhodiola rosea on alcohol. This drug will not need to be prepared on its own, it is sold in any pharmacy. The method of reception is as follows: 7-12 drops are added to a glass of water. Drink half a glass twice a day.
Preventive measures to prevent poisoning of AS
As already mentioned, carbon monoxide often becomes the culprit in the death of people. To protect yourself and your loved ones, you need not only know what to do with carbon monoxide poisoning, but also try to observe the prevention measures, which are as follows:
- It is necessary to regularly check the condition of chimneys and ventilation shafts. It is especially important to pay attention to this before the start of the heating season.
- Before starting to use devices that work on combustible fuel, you should always check their serviceability. A fault in time will help to avoid many problems.
- In the event that the room is poorly ventilated, additional measures should be taken to ensure that it is regularly ventilated.
- Do not start the car in a closed, unventilated garage and do not sleep in the car with the engine running.
- Acquire a special sensor that reacts to the leakage of CO and install it in the house or apartment.
- Try to avoid being near the busy motor roads, especially during the hours of their greatest congestion.
Carbon monoxide sensor
As already mentioned, the presence of carbon monoxide in the air can not be detected with the help of one's own feelings. To protect yourself and your loved ones from adversity, you can purchase a carbon monoxide sensor. This small device will perform vigilant control over the composition of air in the room. After all, first aid in the person's poisoning with carbon monoxide should be almost instantaneous, otherwise one can not make it.
In the event that the CO values exceed the norm, the sensor will notify the hosts with sound and light signals. Such devices are household and industrial. The latter have a more complex device and are designed for large areas.
To some extent, we are all at risk and, under certain circumstances, may suffer from CO.Therefore, each of us should know well what to do with carbon monoxide poisoning. However, there are a number of professions, whose representatives are most at risk. These include:
- taxi drivers;
- car workshop workers;
- operators of diesel engines;
- employees of breweries, boiler houses;
- personnel of steelworks, oil refineries, pulp and paper industries, etc.
It is very important to know what to do with carbon monoxide poisoning. In difficult situations, people with the necessary knowledge and skills can bring the greatest help to the victims. The main thing is not to panic, but to act as quickly, clearly and consistently as possible.