Diabetes mellitus, AIDS and cancer are among the most dangerous diseases on the planet, and worst of all, tend to spread. Of the three listed diseases, diabetes is the least dangerous.
To detect diabetes, especially type I, is relatively easy. If you have dry mouth for the first time and are thirsty for 24 hours, you must first take a blood test. Decoding "sugar - the norm" means that your glucose is in the range of 3.3-5.5 mmol / l and therefore the cause of this condition is somewhat different.
Types of diabetes mellitus and the difference between them
There are 2 types of diabetes mellitus. They have a similar symptomatology, however, they use a different treatment technique, which every diabetic should understand.
Type I diabetes develops when insulin in the blood is not enough or completely absent. This hormone is secreted by β-cells of the pancreas( islets of Langerhans) and ensures the penetration of glucose( sugar) from the blood into the cells. In case it is not enough or not at all,
Type II diabetes develops when there is enough insulin in the blood, but the cells do not perceive it. Developed so-called insulin resistance. The problem is hidden on the surface of the cell membrane, where a specific protein is located - a transporter of glucose into the cell. If this component does not react to insulin, then it can not transfer sugar in full.
Norms of blood tests in adults and the glucose index
The sugar level is a relatively constant value. He fluctuates a little depending on various conditions of the body, but most often keeps on the same level. Often we hear how our friend or neighbor, who recently has diabetes, complains that he has sugar in his blood 10, which he does not know what to do. This is because the person does not fully understand the mechanism of sugar level regulation during the day.
As for a child and an adult, blood sugar levels from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l are considered normal. Some laboratories indicate a norm of 4.4 to 6.6, which is due to the use of a somewhat different method of measurement( the Hagedorn-Jensen method).Therefore, sugar in the blood 6 is a variant of the norm. In most foreign clinics, the unit of measurement for this indicator is somewhat different: it is mg / dl. Therefore, it should be borne in mind that in 1 mmol there is 18 mg / dl of a certain substance in order to decipher the norms of blood tests in adults.
Increased blood sugar is observed after stress and nervous overexertion, with hormonal disorders and consumption of large amounts of high-calorie food. The mechanism of such a reaction is quite simple. Stress causes the release of stress hormones into the blood, of which cortisol is the most important. The latter refers to substances that raise the level of glucose to protect the central nervous system from significant loads, which is inherent in evolution. Hormonal disorders are often observed in endocrinological patients. In this case, we are interested in the increased level of so-called contrinsular hormones, which include most of them: epinephrine, cortisol, thyroxine, glucagon, testosterone and others. These compounds, when they are over-synthesized, cause a rise in blood glucose. Caloric food contains a large amount of carbohydrates, which are split in the gastrointestinal tract to simple compounds, and then to glucose. It is in excess in the blood, which predetermines the development of hyperglycemia.
Reducing the level of sugar is usually observed after fasting and with an excess of insulin in the blood. Limited consumption of food and its low energy value over time leads to weight loss and the need to use other compounds to maintain blood sugar levels. Excess insulin may be due to improper dosage or administration. Elevated levels of the hormone may indicate a pancreatic tumor - insuloma.
Hyperglycemia and its manifestations
The state of hyperglycemia should be understood as increasing glucose levels. That is, when its level exceeds 5.5 or 6.6.The increase in glucose concentration can reach high figures - up to 25 or more, which is very dangerous for the body and can have a lethal outcome. Especially it concerns a person who has diabetes, for whom sugar in the blood 12 or more can not cause any changes in the state of health.
The state of hyperglycemia often manifests itself at sufficiently high rates. The patient feels a strong thirst and frequent urge to urinate, dry mouth, unmotivated general weakness and weight loss. Signs of sugar in the blood can manifest itself in the form of an incomprehensible sensation of creeping crawling over the skin or as frequent fungal or infectious diseases that should be treated for a long time.
Hypoglycemia and variants of its manifestations
Reducing sugar to 3 mmol / l and lower is called hypoglycemia. For a diabetic with experience, even at an indicator on the glucometer 2.0, no changes in the general condition can be noted, which is due to the adaptation of the organism to "sugar" fluctuations.
In general, the hypoglycemic state is more dangerous than increased sugar. Such a danger is due, first, to the rapid dynamics of development and a high probability of loss of consciousness. When the glucose level begins to fall below their normative indicators, patients complain of hunger, irregularities in the heart, irritability.
Glucose norm for diabetics
For patients living with diabetes, it is very rare to achieve the sugar values of a normal person. Therefore, for such patients, limit limits from 5 to 7.2 mmol per liter on an empty stomach are established and below 10 - 2 hours after eating. If such figures are kept almost every day, then you minimize the likelihood of occurrence and development of complications.
Often patients are interested in the question: how to behave when blood sugar is 10. What to do, the doctor will most advise, but with years of living with the disease you will learn how to correctly calculate the dose of insulin or tablets that are necessary to reduce sugar.
The concept of the renal threshold
Kidneys are one of the largest body filters. The renal filter consists of several cell floors that ensure the preservation of the necessary and removal of harmful compounds for the body. Glucose is also a compound that has a certain filtration threshold. It averages 10 mmol / l. This means that if a patient marks glycemia 10.5 mmol or more, then in the urine you can find traces of sugar. While with normal glucose, the urine test does not indicate the appearance of sugar. Therefore, one should not worry especially when the blood sugar is 10. What to do - every experienced diabetic knows: to introduce the necessary dose of insulin or take a sugar-reducing tablet - in 30 minutes the glycemia will decrease.
The concept of "prediabetes"
Type II diabetes mellitus never occurs unexpectedly. Long-existing level of sugar in the blood provokes adaptation of cells to a high level of glucose and insulin, which in a few years can provoke a classic picture of the disease. This so-called transition period is called pre-diabetes. From the point of view of prevention such a period of time is very important. In time, diagnosed hyperglycemia allows not only to reduce the indicators of sugar, but also to prevent the development of future pathology.
Diagnosis of pre-diabetes and normative index for diabetic
In case of symptoms of hyperglycemia, you should immediately consult a doctor. In addition, it is very important to monitor blood sugar independently, which is especially important for people over 40. It is just necessary to take a blood test for sugar at least once every six months, which is of great preventive value.
Quite often patients say: "For the first time in my life, sugar in the blood - 10, what should I do?"The answer can give a test for glucose tolerance. Such an analysis allows you to clearly determine if you have a prediabetes or already a classic picture of diabetes. The test is performed on an empty stomach. The patient is offered to drink a solution of sugar, which contains 75 units of glucose. The measurements of the sugar level both before the test and 2 hours after it are carried out. The sugar table in the blood below indicates the decoding of the results.
|diabetes Fasting||5.5-7.1||> 7|
|Sugar after 2 hours||7.8-11.0||> 11.0|
For a diabetic, the optimal level of sugar fluctuation induring the day is from 5 to 7 mmol / l. For periodic testing, you can take a blood test. Decoding "sugar - the norm" is a confirmation that you are properly controlling diabetes.
Therapeutic diet for both types of diabetes is to comply with diet number 9.It has specific requirements, compliance with which can effectively reduce blood sugar. Treatment with tablets or insulin in combination with proper nutrition allows you to achieve good results. With diet number 9, carbohydrates should be excluded, which are easily digested, and use sufficient fiber. Multiplicity of admission should reach 5 times a day, and 50% of fats from the daily diet should be of vegetable origin. Calculation of calorie content of food should be learned by each patient, using the appropriate tables for food.