Histology of the ovary: features and functions
Often, many women bias against histological examination, because they think that the specialist directs to him only if the oncology process is suspected in the patient's body. But this is an erroneous opinion. Gynecology is distinguished by a wide list of indications for its conduct, and it is often used for the purpose of diagnosis.
For example, the histology of the ovaries is a necessary stage of the therapeutic course. We will go into more detail in this matter.
Histology: What is it?
The main function of histology is the analysis of the structure, development and existence of tissues. A similar study in gynecology is required in the following cases:
- after surgical or spontaneous abortion: endometrial tissue or placenta is examined, the causes of miscarriage, and the condition of the genital organ, including the cervix, are also established;
- if there is a possibility of unsuccessful pregnancy in order to study the fetal tissues;
- after the tumor or cystic formation is excised
- for the purpose of analyzing the state of the endometrium and various pathologies of the uterine neck after scraping the genital organ;
- for establishing the composition of tissues of polyps or papillomatous formations after surgical removal.
How is ovarian follicle histology performed? How many options are there for the procedure?
Types of research
In gynecology, histology means the possibility of carrying out several types of studies that are performed in the following cases:
- revealing the placenta after a stiff pregnancy or spontaneous abortion, with additional tests being given to the woman;
- definition of oncological processes: thanks to the study it is possible to establish the degree of cellular malignancy and develop therapeutic tactics;
- revealing the state of the uterine endometrium, due to which it is possible to determine the causes of bleeding, pain syndrome, as well as the relief of the outer layer of the organ;
- is a separate version - investigation of the uterine neck, which is required to detect a number of pathologies: oncological process, dysplasia, erosion, etc.;
- definition of the state of the ovaries, which is relevant in the presence of neoplasms in their structure, the material for analysis is taken by puncture;
- histology of the ovarian cyst, performed after surgery and allowing to evaluate the tissue structure, a similar procedure is performed if other methods do not allow to see deviations in the reproductive state of a woman, and has several stages.
How are histological examinations carried out?
The histology of the ovaries both during the operation and after it consists of the following consecutive steps:
- A special solution is applied to the material obtained during the study, which prevents rotting of the tissues.
- To increase the density of tissues they are dehydrated, and then filled with paraffin. Due to this, a solid mass is formed, which is necessary for making cuts.
- The material is divided into several parts by means of a microtome.
- Pieces are placed on the glass and stained, which is required to determine different structures( RNA, DNA, etc.).
- Glass-coated fabrics are inspected with a microscope, which makes it possible to determine the presence of atypical cells in the structure of the ovary.
Histology usually lasts from one to three weeks. The duration is determined by whether there is an own laboratory in the medical facility or you need to deliver the material to another unit( this takes time).The procedure can be performed urgently within 24 hours immediately after the operation, but in this case one can not judge the absolute accuracy of the results obtained. Despite the widespread opinion, the histology of the ovarian tumor performed in a standard way is a reliable study that allows the timely identification of a malignant type of pathology.
Ovarian cyst removal operation
Certain types of cysts can not be cured only through conservative methods. In this case, surgery is required, which can be carried out in two ways:
- Laparoscopy is performed through a small hole in the abdominal wall with a laparoscope. Such an intervention is less traumatic, and also characterized by a faster recovery.
- Laparotomy refers to the removal of the ovarian cyst through a cut in the abdomen. Such operations are currently carried out infrequently.
What are the guidelines for choosing?
The following factors influence the choice of the operation method:
- type of cyst;
- health status in general;
- the age of the patient;
- availability of necessary equipment in the clinic;
- the possibility of complications.
Each operation is performed with the following objectives:
- to determine the nature of the cyst, for which after the operation a histology is performed;
- prevent transformation into a cancerous tumor;
- eliminate the cyst and keep the ovary tissue healthy.
Which varieties of cysts can be detected in the histology of
After removal of the ovarian cysts, the tissues taken during surgery are subjected to scrupulous microscopic analysis, so that
- can be found to be benign in nature;
- borderline tumor;
- cancer of the epididymis.
It is not necessary to worry in the first case, but the following need to see a doctor to undergo a detailed examination and prescribe a treatment. Based on the histology of the ovary, therapy is selected exclusively individually. If the pathology has a malignant form, then a radical operation is usually performed, combined at the doctor's discretion with chemical or radiotherapy. With the borderline nature of education, one can try to maintain reproductive function, but in this case there is a risk of malignant transformation of the tumor. Benign neoplasms are:
- follicular and functional;
- serous single-chambered cystadenomas;
Mature teratomas and multi-chambered serous formations are quite safe for a woman's health. All tumors that can rapidly increase and degenerate into cancer are included in the number of borderline histological conditions, which is why most immediate surgical removal is required.
What is the histological examination of the
cyst? Most often, the results of ovarian histology are recorded in Latin, which is why decoding is a medical prerogative. On the form at the top indicate the personal data of the woman, after the kind of tissues and the site of their fence, the method of conducting the study( usual or urgent), the solutions used. Further in the conclusion the conclusions of the doctor are written, that is the information on features of the revealed fabrics, presence or absence of processes of a pathology.
No worries ahead of time
Some patients think that a lot of the information on the form indicates serious health problems, but this is not always the case. It must be remembered that in the conclusion recommendations are not indicated. To get them, you need to see a doctor. He will prescribe the necessary drugs.
The histology of the ovaries makes it possible to reliably determine the nature of the cysts that caused the operation, therefore it is considered a very effective method of diagnosing diseases in the gynecological area. For example, based on the results of a study of the material, an oncological tumor of the primary type can be detected. It will be determined by histological structure as malignant epithelial formation of glandular or papillary structure. But in most cases, if there is a tumor process in the ovary, we are talking about cystadenocarcinoma. Can the results of ovarian histology be erroneous?
Almost every patient, receiving such a result of histology, which he did not expect, in the soul hopes that he is mistaken. However, in such a study, errors can occur very rarely. Thanks to the histology, not only are cancer cells detected, but in some cases, with a number of methods, histologists can even establish the cause of their occurrence. An error can only be made when the material was misused or the sequence of research was not followed, and this happens in rare cases.
Histology ovarian cancer does not often reveal.
After removal, the recovery period passes quickly, which is especially true after laparoscopy. The histology of the ovaries has already been carried out, and the patient is discharged on the 3rd-4th day. Often during the recovery period, oral contraceptives are needed, as well as a review of their diet.
What complications in the cyst can occur
If the cyst does not disappear by itself within a couple of months after its detection, then it is necessary to take serious medication. Its absence can cause a number of complications, which will have to be eliminated only in an operative way. Especially serious danger appears when the cyst speaks about oncology, and the delay is equal to death. It is worth noting that even the formation of a benign character can cause a twisting of the leg, and this will be manifested by very severe pain in the lower abdomen. This complication threatens peritonitis, and it will not be possible to avoid the operation.
The leg is able to twist through the intestine and cause its obstruction. Common complications can also be:
- cyst rupture;
- infertility as a consequence of cyst in neglected condition.
Many patients are afraid of surgery, and therefore reach a critical condition when it is necessary to remove and neoplasm, and the entire ovary, and in some cases not even one.
When diagnosing pathology, all medical recommendations must be followed. If there are no positive results, then it is not necessary to refuse surgery, since it is not currently so traumatic, it allows to avoid significant complications, the organism is quickly restored.