Finger compression of arteries: description of technique, recommendations and advice of specialists
Arterial bleeding is a vascular injury that, if untimely provided, can lead to the death of a person. Before the ambulance arrives, the first first aid should be given to the victim, namely, finger compression of the arteries or a tourniquet. In the latter case, materials that can help stop the bleeding are not always at hand. In such situations it is necessary to hold the finger pressing the vessel.
How to recognize arterial bleeding
Before finger pressure is applied to the artery, make sure that the blood flows from this type of vessel. A feature of the wound will be bright scarlet blood, which is splashed out by a fountain( with each contraction of the heart, blood literally pulsating streams comes out).The victim will be pale, sweating will increase. With loss of blood, dizziness occurs, drowsiness raises, a panic attack occurs. If there is a lot of blood loss, it will cause a faint.
In case of blood loss, there is a strong thirst, dryness appears in the mouth, the pulse weakens.
Venous bleeding has a dark reddish hue. If this type of blood vessels is damaged, the blood simply flows out, as with cuts, without the "fountain" effect.
Provision of first aid to
In case of arterial bleeding, general rules should be known before first aid:
- Can not be delayed. Every second of delay can cost a patient's life.
- In some cases, you can use improvised means to stop bleeding. This can be a scarf, a belt, a long piece of cloth, a towel, etc.
- If the wound is located in a place where it is not possible to apply a tourniquet or if there is no suitable object at hand, then the finger compression of the artery should be performed immediately.
Damage to each type of vessel provides a specific tactic for stopping bleeding.
Closure of the artery is performed above the wound, which helps to reduce the flow of blood to the site of injury, i.e. the vessel closes before injury. This method is associated with the peculiarity of the blood flow - from the heart the blood goes along the arteries to the organs and tissues.
There are special points that allow for effective compression of the arteries, but in order to achieve better results, it is necessary to clamp the artery from both sides.
The method of finger pressure does not apply to bone fractures at the point of presumed compression.
The locations of the arterial compression are presented in the table below.
When fingertip arteries need to know certain places to which the vessel is pressed.
In case of damage to the brachial artery, raise the hand of the injured person and put it behind the head. Then the vessel is clamped: it is performed by four fingers of the hand. The point of finger compression of the artery is located between the mice below the shoulder joint in the third part of the shoulder. At this point, the vessel is strongly pressed against the bone, thus providing an effect on the artery from both sides.
If there is bleeding in the upper arm, the axillary artery contracts. It is pressed against the head of the humerus: the procedure is performed from the inside, by the method of full( circular) grip of the shoulder by hand and pressure with a finger in the axillary region. You can press the other way, as shown in the figure below.
Finger compression of the artery during bleeding is carried out at the point located in the groin area, approximately in the middle of the fold. In this part, the artery is pressed against the thigh.
To help, it is recommended that you kneel on the side of the undamaged leg. Then the thumbs of the hands are pressed against the point in the groin, and the other fingers seem to cover the thigh. When performing this procedure, you should put pressure on all the weight, leaning on your hands.
In cases where the vessels of the head, the submaxillary region, the upper part of the neck are damaged, finger compression of the carotid artery is performed. It is difficult for a person without medical education to put a tourniquet around his neck so that the victim is not strangled( the tourniquet is applied by pulling it through the arm raised behind his head).Therefore, only finger pressure is applied to the neck. It is performed by the thumbs of the hands: they are positioned so that the other fingers are on the back of the head. If the carotid artery is damaged, it should be borne in mind that the blood flows along it( from the body to the side of the head).To eliminate bleeding, the vessel is clamped below the wound site.
The pressure point of the carotid is located in the middle of the anterior surface of the neck muscle. With the correct execution of the manipulation, the artery is pressed down to the spinous process of the vertebrae.
If the wound is located above the point of pressing the carotid artery or at the shoulder joint, then it is possible to press the subclavian artery. To do this, you need to press the fossa behind the clavicle: the pressure is the thumb, and the rest are located behind.
Temporal and maxillary arteries
For injuries and wounds to the face accompanied by arterial bleeding, immediate compression of the temporal or jaw vessels is required. The latter is pressed down by the finger to the lower jaw. And the temporal artery is pressed in front of the auricle.
Arteries of extremities
Arterial bleeding of feet and hands is rarely life-threatening. However, even these types of damage should not lead to serious blood loss. To reduce it, it is necessary to raise the limb, then squeeze the middle third of the forearm with hands using the method of circular grasping. On the same principle, the artery of the foot is pressed: it is clamped on the third leg part.
During pressure, pressure can not be relaxed to prevent further bleeding. Keep your hands on the vessel until the ambulance arrives. When performing the technique of finger pressing of arteries, one should not think about the rules of asepsis and antiseptics, wash hands - in such situations, the account goes for seconds, because each of them can be the last for the victim. In some situations, you can apply a tourniquet or use improvised means for artery transmission. In any case, it is necessary to monitor the patient's condition, and also to note the time when the tourniquet was applied or the finger compression was started. This is necessary in order for ambulance doctors to assess the full severity of the patient's condition.