LFK after hip arthroplasty - a set of exercises and recommendations
A few years ago, almost all patients who received a hip fracture and suffered from arthrosis were restricted in movement. They had no choice but to lock themselves in at home and not go anywhere. Such patients were given the status of a disabled person. But today, thanks to modern developments, touched and medicine, there was a hope that a recumbent patient after rehabilitation will get a chance for a normal full life. LFK after hip arthroplasty is an option for those who were sentenced to restrictions after such a trauma. The procedure is assigned to each patient by a doctor.
Endoprosthetics is an operative procedure that involves the replacement of a joint with a prosthesis. Such a decision allowed to give a chance to those to whom the verdict was passed - a recumbent lifestyle. However, in such a pathology, it is important not only the operation itself, but also rehabilitation after endoprosthetics. The exercise therapy of the hip joint will give good results, but only if the
Surgical intervention to replace the joint is a technically difficult procedure, it is traumatic for the patient. After her, severe pain disturbs, but this is not the only inconvenience, other problems may also appear:
- is significantly worsened by muscle atrophy;
- in rare cases, there are changes in blood clotting rates;
- intestinal peristalsis is disrupted;
- in elderly people there are disruptions in the work of the heart;
- blood pressure jumps.
This is why rehabilitation should be comprehensive. Each patient is individually selected a complex of exercise therapy after endoprosthetics of the hip joint, his accompanying diseases are taken into account. The complex can include not only exercises, but also taking medications, as well as physiotherapy. But the most important stage can be considered therapeutic exercise, which is aimed at restoring the mobility of joints and limbs. To consider, that after operation it is necessary to lay longer, erroneously. Long stay in the recumbent state leads to thrombotic complications and problems with the restoration of joint mobility.
To achieve maximum results and start a full life after hip replacement, exercise is recommended for exercise therapy, which will begin to be done almost on the next day after surgery. The main principle of exercise therapy is compliance with stages, all exercises are better divided into phases, so it is easier to get positive results without negative consequences for the patient.
The exercise therapy after hip arthroplasty consists of three steps:
- , early, also called sparing, starts on the 2nd day after the operation and lasts no more than a week;
- early tonic occurs 7 days after the start of the exercise complex;
- late postoperative begins two weeks later and can last up to three months;
- distant, or adaptive, comes three months after surgery, and its duration is three months.
To understand how the restoration of the joint works, each step should be considered in more detail.
Early stage after operation
As mentioned above, it begins just the day after the patient leaves the anesthesia. It continues until the third week. Several basic rules will help prepare for the execution of the main exercise complex of exercise therapy after endoprosthetics of the hip joint:
- to sleep several days after surgery is desirable only on the back;
- on a healthy side in the early days is better to turn with the help of a health worker, and on the stomach - only on the fifth day;
- no abrupt hip joint movements;
- does not need to bend a bad leg;
- legs to connect and to cross it is impossible, it is better to put between them a small pillow;
- from time to time during the day you need to do simple exercises that will not allow blood to stagnate.
Objectives of the Early Period
Why it is necessary to start exercise therapy after hip arthroplasty immediately on the second day:
- this will help improve blood circulation in the thigh area;
- will allow you to learn how to sit properly on the bed, and after and get up, so as not to damage the joint;
- will help prevent the development of complications, including thrombosis, pleurisy and decubitus;
- will accelerate the healing of the joint;
- will help to reduce puffiness as soon as possible.
The basic complex of exercises
These exercises will help to develop and strengthen an artificial joint:
- Fingering of toes. It is necessary in the sitting or lying position to bend and unbend fingers on both legs.
- Pump. This exercise is allowed to perform after recovering from anesthesia: the foot of the ankle should be bent forward and backward. Do it for an hour for 6 approaches, until the moment when there will be light fatigue.
- The rotation of the feet in different directions 5 times.
- Strain of the quadriceps. Start with a healthy leg. As much as possible, press the popliteal fossa to the bed and hold the tension for a few seconds. Only on the third day you can do the same only on a sick leg.
- Reduction of buttock muscles. Alternately, strain the muscles of the buttocks and hold the tension for several seconds.
- Knee bending. This exercise should be done slowly, without jerks. Slowly sliding on the bed, lifting each leg in turn, bending at the knee.
- Take the flat foot to the side. Slowly, each leg should be taken aside and returned to its original position.
- Extension in the knee. Under the knee cap, put a small roller, folded from a towel. Slowly straighten the leg, the exercise is done on both legs.
- Raise the level foot. Take turns to lift each of the feet for a couple of centimeters.
How to do the exercises correctly in order not to harm?
LFK after operation of hip arthroplasty will benefit if you do everything correctly:
- do exercises several times a day, spending at least 15 minutes each;
- the pace of exercise should be slow, without jerking;
- exercises should be combined with respiratory gymnastics: with muscle strain - a deep breath, and with relaxation - exhalation;
- breathing exercises will not allow the formation of stagnation in the lungs;
- exercises from the early stage is better to do just lying down( but get out of bed to at least stand up), after moving to the sitting position.
This complex is performed better strictly according to the list that was presented above. It will help build muscle tension gradually.
Late stage of rehabilitation
It begins about a month after hip replacement. The late period of exercise therapy lasts about three months. This period has two main goals:
- muscle training and toning;
- restore the volume of motion of the joint.
After the patient has already got out of bed, easily sits on a chair, walks on crutches confidently, the motor mode simply needs to be expanded by training on the stationary bike, but each session should last no more than 10 minutes and conduct it better in the morning and evening. Also, the patient should gradually learn to walk the stairs.
To begin lifting on the steps you need a healthy leg, substituting the patient. And to descend from the steps is better like this: crutches, after an operated leg and healthy.
Adaptive( long-term) period
3 months after hip arthroplasty. The rehabilitation phase is adaptive and lasts three months, and in some cases much more. Its main objectives are:
- full restoration of the artificial joint;
- to accelerate the recovery of bone tissue;
- improve the condition of muscles, tendons and ligaments.
This period involves careful preparation of the operated patient for more intensive workloads and adaptation to the usual life. LFK at this stage supplement physiotherapy: applications using mud and paraffin. Balneotherapy, laser therapy and other procedures are also recommended.
A set of exercises for the house
Workout at home should be constantly supplemented by more complex exercises:
- Lying on your back, you need to take turns to bend and pull your legs to your stomach, imagining that you are riding a bicycle.
- Staying in a prone position, bend your legs and pull them to your stomach, while you need to help yourself with your hands.
- Lie on a healthy side and put a cushion between your legs. The leg should be raised slightly and stayed in this position for as long as possible.
- Lying on the stomach to bend and unbend legs in the knees.
- Staying in the prone position on the abdomen, alternately raise a straight leg, slightly pulling back.
- To stand at attention, the back is even, with hands holding on to the back of the chair, slowly crouch.
- To stand directly, near the feet put a stand with a height of no more than 10 cm. Step on the stand, starting with a healthy leg, and go down with an operation and so go slowly.
- Become next to the chair and lean on its back. On the ankle of the operated leg, throw a loop of the elastic tourniquet, and fix its second end to the leg of the furniture. Pull forward with a straight leg, and then toss to move it back.
Exercises that need to be done with a straight leg are great for patients after hip replacement. LFK at home will help to recover faster and return to a habitual way of life.
Complex exercises on simulators
During the adaptation period the complex expands, exercises are performed not only at home, but also in the gym on simulators. By this period, the muscles and joints are already sufficiently strengthened after the operation, so the load can be increased. This complex of exercises will help to develop the joint as best as possible and strengthen the muscles:
- Bicycle. First, on the simulator, you have to turn the pedals back, if you do not apply any effort, you can go forward to scrolling. Gradually, you need to increase the time of training, and conduct classes at least three times a week.
- Extension of the hip joint. The patient's leg should be placed on the platen of the simulator - the platen should not be fixed, be closer to the knee under the thigh, while holding the handle by hands. Press the roller, imagining that you pump the pump. Movements should be not sharp and with effort. Exercise bike with a low pedaling position. You need to simulate a ride. The pedals must be adjusted so that when the pedals are lowered, the foot is straight.
- Walking on a treadmill. You need to start walking backwards. The pace was initially slow, with gradual acceleration.
In each of the stages of exercise therapy after total hip replacement, monitoring is important in the attending physician. It is he who will help and tell you what exercises are best done and when to start adding loads. It is impossible to make a decision on employment on the simulators independently. Any sudden movement can lead to serious and irreparable consequences. Following all the recommendations and not being lazy, you can completely forget about the operation in half a year.