Arterial blood supply to the pancreas: features, pattern and structure
The pancreas is an extremely important structure. After all, this body not only participates in the digestive processes, but also is part of the endocrine system, ensuring the regulation and utilization of glucose in the blood. Of course, a similar structure requires adequate blood supply. The pancreas eats a lot of blood vessels. As is known, any disturbance of blood flow negatively affects the work of the organ and can lead to tissue necrosis.
That's why many people are interested in more information. What is the blood supply of the pancreas? Scheme, main arteries and veins, features of innervation and lymph flow are important points. To study this data is worth more in detail.
Blood supply to the pancreas. Anatomy and general information
Before considering the main vessels, it is worth familiar with the structure of the organ itself. The pancreas is located behind the stomach, just above the solar plexus. They consist of a head, body and tail. By the way, iron is the second largest in th
Specific cells of this gland synthesize enzymes, in particular trypsin, lipase, lactase, which provide digestion of protein, carbohydrate and fat molecules. In addition, the tissues of the body produce important hormones, in particular insulin and glucagon.
Arterial blood supply to the pancreas
We have already dealt with the structure and features of the functioning of the organ. How is the blood supply of the pancreas?
In fact, this body does not have its own vessels. Blood is delivered to the tissues through the branches of the splenic, hepatic and upper mesenteric arteries. The feeding of the head of the organ is provided by the superior mesenteric and hepatic artery, which originate from the lower and upper pancreatoduodenal vessels.
In turn, the pancreatoduodenal arteries connect the blood vessels to an arc that provides a constant circular movement of blood.
Gastric-duodenal artery: features of the blood flow
Some people are interested in questions about how the blood supply of the stomach and pancreas is carried out. A significant role here is played by the gastroduodenal artery, which departs from the common renal artery. This vessel, as a rule, reaches a length of 20-40 mm, and its diameter is 2.5-5.0 mm.
This vessel is located behind the stomach that controls food intake. The vessel also crosses the initial parts of the intestine. It is partially responsible for the blood supply to the pancreas and duodenum, stomach and nearby tissues.
By the way, any surgical intervention on the pancreas( for example, removal of a part of the head) can lead to a displacement, a violation of blood circulation and further necrosis of the vessel.
Do not lose sight of and venous vessels, considering blood supply. The pancreas has a very developed arterial network. The outflow of blood is also carried out by a mass of small vessels that merge into multiple branches and eventually flow into the portal vein system.
From the gland, the hook-shaped process and the duodenum, blood collects through vessels that run parallel to the pancreatic-duodenal arteries. The most functional are the lower pancreas-duodenal veins, which are one, rarely two trunks are included in the superior mesenteric vein. Additionally, blood from the gland and duodenum is collected in the right gastro-omental vein.
With regard to the tail and body of the gland, the outflow of blood in this case occurs through the pancreatic branches of the splenic vein. Also, blood is collected by a large lower vein, which subsequently flows into the lower or upper mesenteric vein.
Lymphatic vessels of the pancreas
Considering the blood supply of the pancreas, do not forget about the current of the lymph, because this biological fluid is no less important.
Lymphatic vessels that collect lymph from the pancreas are inextricably linked to the general lymphatic system of other organs. Small capillaries collect fluid from the islets of Langerhans and the acini, and then combine into small vessels that run parallel to the blood vessels.
In the future, lymph empties into pancreatic and pancreatoduodenal lymph nodes that spread near the upper edge of the pancreas, as well as at its anterior and posterior surfaces. Further, the fluid is collected in larger spleen and celiac lymph nodes( they are referred to as second-order reservoirs).
The innervation( or rather, the nervous regulation) of the pancreas is provided by the branches of the right vagus nerve. In addition, the sympathetic nerves of the solar plexus( in particular, the celiac) influence the tissues of the organ.
It should be noted that the sympathetic nerves regulate the tone of the venous walls, through which the outflow of blood from the gland is carried out. At the same time parasympathetic nerve fibers are involved in the production and secretion of digestive enzymes.
Damage to the above nerves leads to the development of hemodynamic and neurovegetative disorders. Also, with injuries, there are motor-evacuation disorders from the gastrointestinal tract.
Organ secretory activity and nerve impulses
Many people are interested in questions about how the pancreas works. Blood supply and innervation are important issues that should be considered.
As already mentioned, the activity of the organ is regulated by parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve. Nerve impulses from these nerve endings activate the processes of production and isolation of digestive enzymes.
Sympathetic nerves act differently. Short-term irritation of the celiac nerve leads to a halt in the secretion of pancreatic juice. Nevertheless, prolonged stimulation is also accompanied by intensive release of enzymes.
It should be noted that even with damage to the above nerves, the secretion of the pancreas does not stop, since it is maintained by the humoral mechanisms of regulation.
Alcohol abuse and circulatory disorders of the pancreas
Alcohol has a negative effect on the work of the whole body, in particular the pancreas. The fact is that alcoholic drinks cause constriction of small vessels of the organ. In this regard, the gland tissues do not receive much needed nutrients and oxygen. With chronic alcoholism, cells begin to die, which threatens with more massive necrosis.
In addition, the abuse of hot drinks often contributes to the deposition of salts in the tail of the organ, which also adversely affects the work of the gland. According to statistics, in women, these processes are faster than in men.
Circulatory disturbance in the gland tissues: causes, symptoms and treatment
Disrupted blood circulation is very dangerous. The pancreas consumes a lot of oxygen and nutrients that it needs for synthetic processes.
This pathology is rarely independent. In most cases, circulatory disturbance is associated with other diseases, in particular atherosclerosis and heart failure. These pathologies lead to a violation of venous outflow from the gland tissues.
It should be noted immediately that diagnosing this disease is not easy. The fact is that the clinical picture is smeared, since the symptoms of a primary disease come to the fore. Violation of venous outflow adversely affects the pancreas - it swells and increases in size, but the processes of synthesis of enzymes and hormones are deactivated.
The lack of enzymes primarily affects digestion. Some patients report the occurrence of dyspepsia. There are pains in the abdomen, heaviness in the stomach, rumbling, bloating, increased gas formation, which is often accompanied by severe pain.
Diagnosis of a violation of outflow of blood in the tissues of the pancreas can be done with the help of tests. For example, against the background of a similar pathology in the serum, the activity of trypsin and amylase increases. At the same time, the activity of amylase in urine samples is increased moderately.
Informative is also ultrasound, because during the procedure the doctor can detect edema and change in the size of the pancreas. At laboratory research of a feces it is possible to find out presence of a considerable quantity of not undigested substances which at normal work of digestive system are acquired completely.
In the absence of treatment, as well as in the case of serious circulatory disorders in the gland tissues, development of diabetes mellitus is possible( the organ ceases to synthesize insulin so necessary to the body).
There is no specific therapy in this case, because for the beginning it is necessary to eliminate the underlying disease. Nevertheless, patients are prescribed a special sparing diet and recommend fractional meals( often, but in small portions).In the presence of serious digestive disorders, patients take medications that contain pancreatic enzymes.