Robots in medicine: an overview of modern technologies
To date, robot technology has moved far ahead, so the concept of treating people has changed significantly. Based on the number of research groups now engaged in the manufacture of robots, in medicine, there is a huge progress, especially when compared with the successes of eight years ago.
The first successful measures to create artificial intelligence are in 2006, when a scientist Sylvan Martel assembled a research group and created a unique at the time a tiny robot, the dimensions of which hardly exceeded the ball from a conventional pen. This artificial organism was placed in the carotid artery of a live pig, where it successfully moved along given points. Since then, robots in medicine have taken their niche and continue to actively develop. And judging by the experience of the last few years, these technologies are moving in huge steps.
robots The main goal of creating such "assistants" is to move not only along the largest human arteries, but also to obtain data from ar
However, this is not the only plus of using robots in medicine. For example, similar technologies can help in the treatment of cancer. The fact is that microrobots are able to deliver drugs directly to the focus of malignant education. Unlike chemotherapy, when aggressive drugs spread throughout the patient's body and cause irreparable consequences, such a method will not strike a strong blow to the human immune system.
Modern robots in medicine are able to cope with a large list of tasks. However, today there are a lot of questions about how to make such a small artificial organism move through the bloodstream or track its location. But some modern developments, allow you to cope with the tasks. Let us consider them in more detail.
These robotic assistants in medicine are a kind of titanium core enclosed in aluminum shells. At the same time, their size does not exceed 20 μm. When the aluminum shell comes into contact with water, a reaction begins, during which hydrogen forms on the surface of the core. It is this substance that causes the microstructure to move at a speed equal to 150 of its diameters per second. This is equivalent to the fact that a person of 2 meters in height can swim for the same time of 300 meters. The chemical engine of this unique robot in medicine is used due to the addition of a special substance - gallium. This component reduces the rate of formation of oxide coating. Due to this, the micro-robot can work for about 5 minutes with a maximum power reserve of 900 mm( provided it stays in water).
In order to direct the microscopic aggregate in a given direction, an external magnetic field is used. Thus, the "bio-missile" is applicable for the delivery of drugs to a specific point in the human body.
This is a rather interesting direction of robotics. Muscular robots in medicine are used to stimulate muscle cells. Such microscopic aggregates operate by means of electrical impulses, which they transmit. The robots themselves are a kind of ridges made of hydrogel. They work on the same principle as in the body of mammals. For example, when it comes to the human body, the muscles begin to contract through the tendons. In the case of a microrobot, this process is due to an electric charge.
The robot "Leonardo" in medicine has gained special popularity. It was created to replace surgeons in the future. To date, this independent mechanism weighing 500 kg, equipped with four "hands", is able to cope with a huge number of tasks. Three of his limbs are equipped with miniature tools for performing complex operations. On the fourth "hand" is a tiny video camera.
The way the robots work in medicine, the photo shows the best. Da Vinci is able to operate through the tiniest incisions, the width of which is not more than a few centimeters. Thanks to this, after the surgical intervention, the patient does not have ugly scars.
In the process of working "Leonardo" at some distance from him sits a medical worker who controls the console. Due to the modern joystick, the doctor can perform the most complicated manipulations with the jeweler's precision. All actions are transmitted to the limbs of the robot, which repeats the movements of the fingers.
It is also worth noting that the hands of the unit differ slightly from human hands in that the manipulators are capable of operating in modes. In addition, artificial "fingers" do not get tired and can instantly die out if the operator accidentally releases the control panel. The doctor can control his movements with powerful eyepieces, which allow you to magnify the picture 12 times.
This interesting robot was developed specially for astronauts who experience psychological pressure, being so far from their native planet. The humanoid machine is small in size. Its height is only 34 cm. However, this is quite enough. The robot is capable of supporting a full conversation, responding to questions and imitating "live" communication. The only drawback of the new development is that it communicates so far exclusively in Japanese.
The robot perfectly distinguishes human speech from other sounds. In addition, he is able to recognize people with whom he has already communicated before. He can determine the mood based on facial expressions and generally knows how much. If necessary, he can even hug.
Some scientists believe that these intellectual robots in medicine are not needed. However, they may well find application in psychotherapy.
This assistant works as a zootherapist. Outwardly it was created in the form of a young seal. The outer shell of the robot is made of a soft material that resembles a natural white skin of a real animal. Inside it is packed with all sorts of sensors( touch, temperature, light, position, sound, etc.).This full-fledged artificial intelligence is well aware of where it is, is able to respond to the name given to it. A unique robot with a touching face distinguishes rudeness and affectionate attitude.
Today this interesting robot is already widely used for the therapy of various categories of patients. It can be stroked, hug, communicate with him or simply tell about his experiences. In the future, these robots will be sent to nursing homes, kindergartens and rehabilitation centers to help people suffering from psychological distress. Very often in the postoperative period, patients need support, but it is impossible to keep animals in medical institutions, so this artificial intelligence will be a real breakthrough in restorative medicine.
This robot is designed to replace pharmacists. This will help the medical staff to save considerable time on finding the right medicines and delivering them to the hospitals. By and large this assistant is a robotic medicine chest, the height of which is 130 cm. The robot is able to carry a weight of up to 20 kg, this is enough to move a large number of different drugs and samples across the hospital. When moving, "Hospi" is able to skirt obstacles, so the risk that it will face staff or visitors to the hospital is reduced to almost zero.
This robot is able to assist in advising at a distance. The virtual "assistant" allows the attending physician to make a detour in a matter of minutes. In addition, thanks to the robot, it becomes possible to monitor the condition of severely ill patients, requiring special attention throughout the day and night.
The height of the miracle of technology is 1.5 meters. Inside the robot is installed a system of special sound and laser sensors, through which the construction of the route of the unit is carried out. Also it is equipped with a screen on which the face of the attending physician will be displayed. This makes it possible to simulate a full-fledged communication with patients who fully experience the presence of a medical officer."RP Vita" is also equipped with modern diagnostic tools. To work with the unit is enough laptop or tablet.
This robot is a specialized exoskeleton, thanks to which paralyzed people can fully move.
The equipment sensors are attached to the skin of patients and begin to read the strength of the impulses that emanate from these or those muscles. If any node does not work in full, then the exoskeleton is activated, and the organs receive the charges necessary for their work.
Today, the robot is presented in two versions: the whole skeleton or only for the feet.
This supercomputer is equipped with 90 servers with four processors, each with eight cores. The robot's operational memory is sixteen terabytes."Watson" is an oncologist who can diagnose in a short time. The unit is equipped with an excellent artificial intelligence, so that it is able to quickly read information and draw the necessary conclusions. The robot handles up to 600,000 medical directories and other documents needed for diagnosing in minutes. The doctor remains to load the patient's medical history into the robot's memory and get a probable diagnosis. In addition, "Watson" can be asked questions, only so far only in writing.
Based on rapidly developing technologies, it is easy to conclude that robots in medicine in the future will be indispensable. They will allow medical institutions to move to a new level of diagnosis and treatment of the most complex diseases. In this case, it is also about mental patients.