Ectasia is what? Causes, symptoms and treatment of pathology
Ectasia is a pathological dilatation of the walls of a vessel or duct of the gland that is observed in a certain area. Most often, the internal jugular vein or mammary gland undergoes painful changes. The disease occurs in patients of middle age and elderly. If the signs of pathology are clearly expressed during the expansion of the milk ducts, venous ectasia may be asymptomatic for a long time, but at the same time progress.
Causes of venous ectasia
With vein ectasia, the lumen of the vessel widens in a limited area. Pathology begins to develop in young years, but it manifests itself in patients after the age of 40 years.
The main cause of this disease is excessive physical activity. And also to provoke changes in blood vessels can be traumas, hormonal disorders, deviations in metabolism. The most commonly found ejaculation of the jugular vein( phlebectasia).This vessel passes in the neck. The disease occurs due to a malfunction of the valves of the vein. The cause of the pathology are the follo
- head injury and cervical spine;
- work, requiring a long sitting in an uncomfortable position;
- endocrine and cardiovascular diseases.
Symptoms of jugular vein
For a long time the disease develops without external manifestations. Only after a few years there are initial signs of ectasia. This swelling and the formation of a "bag" of blue in the region of the cervical veins. At first, soreness is not felt. Note pathology can only be done with a medical examination.
As the disease develops, pain syndrome occurs. Unpleasant sensations and discomfort appear with vocal tension or head turns. In neglected cases, pain in the neck becomes permanent, the patient is difficult breathing, the voice becomes hoarse. Pathology requires immediate treatment, as disruption of the internal jugular vein affects the functioning of all body systems.
Diagnosis and treatment of venous ectasia
If a suspected pathology is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis. The doctor prescribes a number of studies to detect venous ectasia. This duplex scanning of cervical vessels, MRI of the head, ultrasound of the cervical spine, as well as venosinusography.
The choice of method of treatment depends on the degree of disturbance. If the pathology is small, then they conduct a dynamic observation of the patient's condition. The patient is recommended to reduce the burden on the spine. Prescribe analgesics for the removal of pain. If the ectasia progresses, then a surgical operation is performed. The affected area of the vein is removed and the healthy parts of the vessel are sewn.
Reasons for enlarging the mammary duct
Breast ectasia is an extension of their ducts, which is not associated with lactation. A healthy woman always has a small amount of milk in her breasts, even when she does not feed her baby. Normally, this substance dissolves in the course of the duct and is not released to the outside.
When the milk duct is ectatic, the liquid accumulates and exits. There are discharge from the nipples. We can name the following causes of pathology:
- This phenomenon is often observed in women during menopause and menopause due to endocrine changes in the body.
- Increased secretion of the hormone prolactin can cause blockage of the mammary duct.
- Breast trauma can lead to deformed ducts.
- Malignant breast tumors often lead to ectasia. This is the most dangerous form of expansion of the dairy ducts, which requires immediate treatment.
- Started inflammation of the mammary glands.
The risk group includes women aged 45 to 55 years who have a history of abortion or mammary gland surgery. To provoke ectasia may be wearing too tight and tight clothes.
Symptoms of enlargement of the
milk ducts The symptoms of ectasia are usually pronounced. The shape of the nipples changes, they become flat, and sometimes even retracted. Appears allocation of white color from the mammary glands. The area around the nipple swells, the skin becomes rough. The patient is concerned about pain, burning and itching.
Pathology can be detected using mammography and ultrasound of the mammary glands. Do also doktografiyu - x-ray of the mammary glands with the filling of the ducts with contrast material.
Methods of therapy and prevention of ectasia of the mammary glands
The choice of the method of treatment of ectasia depends on the cause that caused the pathology. If the expansion of the milk ducts is associated with an infectious inflammation of the gland, then antibacterial and antiviral drugs are prescribed. If the pathology is due to excess prolactin or climacteric changes, then hormonal therapy is carried out.
If the pharmacological treatment has proved ineffective, then resort to a surgical procedure. Remove the affected areas or the entire duct completely. Indication for surgery is the presence of a tumor and papillomas in the canal.
To prevent the development of pathology, women over 40 years of age should undergo a regular mammography examination. It should be remembered that any injuries of the breast are very dangerous, so you need to protect your chest from bumps, bruises and concussions. It is important for patients to monitor the hormonal background of the body.
Breast ectasia is easily curable in the early stages. But in neglected cases, pathology can provoke the development of mastopathy and tumors. Therefore, when there is pain in the chest and discharge from the nipples, it is urgent to visit a mammalian doctor.