Acute maxillary sinusitis: the main symptoms and treatment
Acute maxillary sinusitis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the maxillary sinuses. It is not difficult to guess why the second name of this disease is sinusitis. The ailment quickly spreads to the submucosal layer, the supraclavicular and bone tissue of the upper dentition. If you believe the statistics, this pathology is the most common reason for a visit to an ENT doctor, because inflammation of the nasal sinuses is found in both adults and children.
Severity of symptoms largely depends on the severity of the course of the disease. During the diagnosis of sinusitis, otolaryngologists carefully study the patient's medical history, conduct an examination and instrumental procedures. Usually for the confirmation of inflammation in the nasal sinuses it turns out enough radiography, ultrasound, in some cases resort to puncture. The treatment of sinusitis is carried out by conservative and surgical methods.
Causes of maxillary sinusitis
If you know firsthand what it is - acute maxillary sinus
- viral infections;
- prolonged exposure to cold, freezing of the body;
- inflammation of the oral cavity;
- diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
- allergic rhinitis;
- chronic rhinitis;
- curvature of the nasal septum;
- complex surgical treatment of upper teeth;
- trauma and nose injuries;
- weakened immunity;
- HIV infection.
The reasons for the progression of acute maxillary sinusitis and its aggravation can be confidently considered a wrong way of life, alcohol abuse and taking drugs. Influence on the development of sinusitis is also capable of corresponding genetic abnormalities, intrauterine anomalies. In the end, the quality of the environment and the pollution of the environment play a huge role. Symptoms of acute maxillary sinusitis can be caused by one or more provoking factors simultaneously.
Classification of the disease
Every day thousands of people turn to a doctor with sinusitis. In this case, all patients may have a different type of acute maxillary sinusitis. The code for ICD-10, corresponding to sinusitis, J32.0 - inflammation in the upper paranasal sinuses of the nasal cavity. In addition, experts divide the disease into several types, depending on the etiology:
- Rhinogenic. Provoke this kind of sinusitis can a chronic runny nose, fungal infections.
- Hematogenous. The pathology develops when the infection, present earlier in the body, enters the bloodstream.
- Traumatic. Is a consequence of a fracture of the upper jaw or nasal septum.
- Vasomotor. It is formed due to an incorrect reaction of the organism to external stimuli( cold air, chemicals, etc.).
- Odontogenic. Acute maxillary sinusitis of this type is the result of the influence of pathogenic bacteria localized in the carious cavities of the upper teeth.
- Allergic. This type of sinusitis is a complication of allergic rhinitis.
Forms of maxillary sinusitis
There is one more classification of the disease of the paranasal sinuses - symptomatic. Depending on the nature of the course, the disease is divided into:
- Acute catarrhal maxillary sinusitis. As a rule, such a sinusitis is not much different from the common in our understanding of the common cold, because it is expressed by stuffy and mucous discharge from the nose. Catarrhal sinusitis can be cured and avoid complications. If you run the disease, it can go into a purulent form.
- Acute suppurative maxillary sinusitis. Unlike the previous one, it is characterized by the presence of exudative contents in the sinuses. With purulent maxillary sinusitis, patients can significantly deteriorate their state of health, headaches appear.
Any of the varieties of sinusitis can be one-sided or two-sided.
The manifestation of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
Separate attention deserves the symptomatology of sinusitis. The main signs of acute maxillary sinusitis are:
- nasal congestion;
- shortness of breath.
Other symptoms that are attributed to various forms of sinusitis will manifest depending on the nature of the course of the disease. In acute sinusitis, the following is most often observed:
- subfebrile body temperature;
- first the secretion of clear mucus, and later - a purulent infiltrate;
- frequent sneezing;
- absence or blunting of the sense of smell;
- discomfort and soreness in the upper part of the face.
Symptoms may increase in moments of sudden movements, sneezing, coughing. To acute bilateral maxillary sinusitis is added increased tear and conjunctivitis. By the way, in the chronic form of the maxillary sinusitis, similar manifestations are observed. What can be the complications of
? Diagnosed maxillary sinusitis requires treatment. Ignore the disease, which, it would seem, does not pose a serious threat to health, it is impossible. Inaction is fraught with dangerous complications. Most of them require urgent surgical treatment:
- inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa;
- oxygen deficiency;
- blood poisoning;
- lesion of cranial bones and brain.
Genyantritis in childhood
Unlike adults, the nasal sinuses in infants are poorly developed, so mucus congestion rarely occurs there. At the age of up to 3 years, maxillary sinusitis is most often bacterial. In addition, acute maxillary sinusitis is much less common in children than in adults. In this case, the recurrence of chronic rhinitis is often accompanied by inflammation of the middle ear.
Sinusitis in young children is difficult enough to diagnose. The child's inability to clearly complain of pain and describe his state of health prevents parents from recognizing the problem. But despite this, you can guess the genyantritis of a baby. Children who are sick with acute sinusitis, breathe heavily. Breasts become restless and moody, sleep poorly, often refuse to eat and drink - a stuffy nose prevents them from sucking their breasts or nipples normally.
Older children are already able to tell what is bothering them, and to characterize their condition. Toddlers and preschoolers often suffer from inflammation of several sinuses simultaneously. With a common lesion of sinusitis in purulent-mucous discharge, blood impurities may appear.
Other common symptoms of acute sinusitis in childhood, in addition to nasal congestion, can be called:
- reduced sensitivity to odors;
- dryness and sore throat;
- frequent cough at night;
- high body temperature;
- increased irritability by evening.
Children suffer severe exacerbation of the maxillary sinusitis. During illness, attention is impaired, memory and learning ability are reduced. The kid does not sleep well at night, can snore.
Diagnosis of sinusitis of the maxillary sinuses
Any specialist-otolaryngologist can easily determine sinusitis, but to clarify the diagnosis, the patient still has to undergo several research procedures. Before sending the patient to the diagnosis, the doctor will get acquainted with his medical history and try to find the causes of the disease. In addition, for the successful treatment of ailment it is important to clarify the nature of its course - chronic or acute. To do this, determine the degree of intensity of symptoms.
Diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis involves the use of instrumental research methods:
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- endoscopy of the nasal cavity;
In addition to an ENT examination, patients are usually advised to consult a dentist about the condition of the upper jaw and teeth on it. Treatment begins only after the results of all studies, making sure that the patient has acute maxillary sinusitis. In the medical history, the doctor paints the optimal therapeutic tactics, which can be adjusted depending on the individual characteristics of the organism and the rate of recovery.
Principles and tactics of therapy of the disease
Current trends in the treatment of sinusitis are based on inhalation procedures. Today, many experts are confident that the introduction of aerosolized products can increase the physical and chemical activity of the active ingredients. But to receive tablets, experts have become increasingly skeptical - in their opinion, the effectiveness of such drugs can not be the maximum because of the poor blood supply of the paranasal sinuses.
The second popular method of treatment of sinusitis is the use of electrophoresis, implying the introduction of minimal doses of the drug in ionized form. Medicinal products come to the place of immediate inflammation and have a powerful sanitizing effect. The combined use of aerosols and electrophoresis gives good results. Unlike systemic drugs, the action of which is blocked by inflamed vessels, local drugs penetrate the sinuses through the pores, directly to the tissues.
When treating acute sinusitis before the doctor, the following tasks are:
- to remove the swelling of the patient's mucosa;
- to release nasal passages for outflow of infiltrate from the maxillary sinuses;
- control of a bacterial or viral pathogen;
- elimination of symptoms and treatment of secondary diseases.
Unlike rhinitis, the secretion of the secretion from the sinus cavity in sinusitis is disrupted, and to prevent infection with pathogenic microflora, the patient is prescribed local antimicrobial drugs that are administered by inhalation.
All medicines that are currently used in otolaryngology for the treatment of nasal sinuses are conventionally divided into:
- is an anti-inflammatory.
In acute bilateral sinusitis, the use of immunomodulators is mandatory, most often of homeopathic origin. The most effective are tinctures of Eleutherococcus, Ginseng, Calendula. These herbal remedies not only increase the body's defense, but also prevent the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria in the sinus cavity. To be treated immunomodulators it is necessary under the strict supervision and the control of the doctor.
The use of phytopreparations for the control of sinusitis shows good results. If the course of sinusitis is not complicated by a bacterial infection, treatment is built without antibiotics. Good results are demonstrated by the use of inhalers together with antiseptics and vasoconstrictive sprays, thanks to which it is possible to suppress the inflammatory process in the sinuses.
Because acute purulent maxillary sinusitis is considered to be the most severe form, it is resorted to the use of a drug complex of "shock" force for its treatment. Most often with such a sinusitis, a key role is played by a correctly selected combination of antibiotics( sometimes administered intravenously) and antiseptics. In some cases, against a background of weakened immunity, the disease can lead to melting of surrounding tissues and, as a result, brain damage, sepsis. These are very dangerous pathologies, which in the most cases terminate for the patient with a disability or fatal outcome.
Drugs for the treatment of acute sinusitis
If you approach the question of acute maxillary sinusitis therapy in details, it is worth paying attention to the most popular drugs that doctors prescribe. Do self-medication with genyantritis, as you might have guessed, it is impossible. In addition, the same drug can have different effects on the patient's body. That is why the medicine should be selected only by the attending doctor.
For mild to moderate severity of sinus, right-sided and left-sided acute maxillary sinusitis, the German "Sinupret" proved to be a good candidate. In its composition, only plant components that remove inflammation, flowing in the upper respiratory tract( sorrel, verbena, gentian, elder, primrose).Sinupret has no analogues with identical content. This drug is unique in its kind, because:
- has both antiviral and immunomodulatory effects;
- regulates the viscosity of sputum;
- fights against mucostasis;
- improves the natural withdrawal of the infiltrate from the sinuses;
- restores the normal functions of the epithelium.
If the phytotherapy does not produce the expected effect, the doctor can prescribe the patient a passage of the nasal sinus puncture. This unpleasant procedure will allow you to learn about the type of pathogen and select the active antibiotics. After sampling the biomaterial it will take several days to find out which antibacterial substances are sensitive to the pathogenic microflora. With genyantritis prescribe such drugs:
- "Amoxicillin clavulanate";
If the diagnosed acute maxillary sinusitis has a viral origin, the treatment is built on a different principle. Unfortunately, so far there are not enough effective drugs that can finally eliminate the pathogen from the body. Antiviral drugs only depress the activity of pathogens. The main emphasis in therapy is on strengthening the immune system.
Puncture is not done in patients in uncomplicated cases of sinusitis. Then the treatment of sinusitis is performed according to the "classical" scheme:
- Antiseptic inhalation.
- Vasoconstrictors( not longer than a week).
- Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action before obtaining puncture results( "Ceftriaxone", "Nafcillin").
- Antihistamines( with a tendency to allergic reactions).
The average treatment for acute sinusitis lasts about 2-4 weeks. If sinusitis has become a secondary disease, puncture and bapsoze are mandatory.
How to prevent
disease Prevention of acute maxillary sinusitis comes down to a simple rule - to treat rhinitis in a timely manner, including a runny allergic etiology, respiratory tract diseases, and also to monitor the condition of the oral cavity. The chances of developing a sinusitis are minimal if the patient is eating properly and has a healthy lifestyle. Remember that any disease is easier to prevent than treat.