Aneurysm of the aorta of the heart - what is it? Aneurysm of the aorta: causes, symptoms, treatment

Among all known diseases of the heart and blood vessels, doctors identify a category that poses the greatest danger to human life. It includes myocardial infarction and aortic aneurysm. The latter will be discussed in more detail in the article.

Heart aortic aneurysm: what is it and how dangerous is it?

The aorta is one of the largest arteries in the human body that is near the heart. Through it, the blood flows from the main muscle into all the other arteries. An aneurysm of the cardiac aorta is a pathology in which the aortic segment expands due to the influence of many factors. Pathology can be both congenital and acquired character.

The disease begins with the bursting of the inner shell of the vessel under the pressure of the blood stream. Thus, the blood is able to flow directly into the muscle layer. In this condition, the patient usually experiences painful discomfort behind the sternum, in the left arm. Skin pads turn pale, pressure rises, nauseous urges appear. Impregnated with blood, g

radually the aortic wall stretches. If an aneurysm ruptures, a person may lose consciousness. In some cases, instantaneous death occurs from severe blood loss and shock.

Pathogenesis of

disease How does the aortic aneurysm develop? What is this pathology, you can understand if you know the anatomy of the main muscle of the human body. In the myocardium there are thinned walls, which are constantly bulging during the transfer of blood from one ventricle to another. If a person has this disease, the restriction of the walls gradually slows down. This situation makes permanent blood pumping problematic.

In addition to damage to the walls of the aorta in the formation of an aneurysm, hemodynamic and mechanical factors also take an active part. Pathology most often occurs in functionally stressed areas, which constantly experience increased stress due to high blood flow velocity. Chronic traumatism of the aorta and excessive activity of proteolytic enzymes provoke the destruction of the elastic framework and the appearance of nonspecific changes in degenerative nature in the wall of the vessel.

The formed aneurysm constantly increases in size, as the pressure on its walls only increases. On the other hand, the blood flow in the aneurysmal sac slows down and acquires a so-called turbulent character. Only 45% of the blood from the total volume in the aneurysm itself falls into the distal bed. This is due to the fact that in its cavity blood flows along the walls, the central flow is constantly held by the mechanism of turbulence and the presence in large quantities of thrombotic masses.

Causes of pathology

Scientists from around the world continue to actively study a disease such as an aneurysm of the aorta of the heart, what it is and what factors lead to its development. Below are just a few of them:

  1. Atherosclerosis. Sclerotic plaques that form during this disease can affect the walls of the aorta and make them less elastic. Diseases of infectious nature. Aneurysm of the heart aorta very often occurs against the background of syphilis or tuberculosis.
  2. Congenital diseases( Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome).Often the history of the appearance of pathology is tracked by considering a family history.
  3. Injuries and mechanical injuries resulting from car accidents.
  4. Myocardial infarction. This is the most common cause of the disease.35% of people who underwent myocardial infarction are diagnosed with aneurysm of the heart. In this case, it is perceived as its direct continuation.

The group of increased risk of an aneurysm includes heavy smokers, hypertensive people, people with excess weight and high blood cholesterol. According to statistics, the aortic aneurysm of the heart is five times more likely to be diagnosed in males than in females. As a rule, the age of patients is more than 50 years.

Classification of pathology

In vascular surgery, several variants of aortic aneurysm classifications are used, taking into account their immediate localization, wall structure, shape and etiology.

In accordance with the segmental typology, there are: an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva, an ascending / descending section, an arch of the aorta and the abdominal aorta.

Evaluation of the morphological state of the aneurysm structure allows us to divide them into true and false. The wall of the latter is represented by a connective tissue, which is formed due to the formation of a pulsating hematoma.

The shape of the aneurysm can be saccate and spindle-shaped.

What are the symptoms of pathology?

In most cases, the disease is asymptomatic. Diagnose it randomly, most often during preventive examinations or when examining other organs. Complaints in patients appear in the event that the aneurysm is characterized by rapid growth or is already on the eve of the rupture.

An aneurysm of the ascending aorta of the heart and its arch is usually accompanied by a bright clinical picture, the reason for this is a special anatomical location. Pathology can exert pressure on the ribs and thoracic spine. Patients complain of coughing and shortness of breath due to the squeezing of the bronchi, palpitations, hoarseness of the voice.

Prolonged burning pain in the back region is typical for the pathologies of the thoracic aorta of the heart. In this case, patients usually notice the appearance of dry cough, swelling, dizziness and weakness throughout the body.

During a diagnostic examination, the physician should pay special attention to the external features of the person. Lengthening of the palms, high growth, kyphosis, deformity of the sternum - all these signs may indicate the Marfan syndrome. We have already talked about him in this article.

Unfortunately, very often the first sign of pathology is the aortic rupture. It is manifested by heavy bleeding into the digestive system. The patient is vomiting with blood impurities, severe pain behind the sternum, which spreads down the spine. Lack of timely help can end for the patient by death.

How to detect an aneurysm?

Most often during the next preventive examination, doctors diagnose an "aortic aneurysm of the heart".What is it, what are the causes of pathology and the main methods of treatment, the specialist should tell on the primary admission. A more detailed study of the problem may require a number of additional studies, including CT, MRI, ultrasound. Based on the results of the final diagnosis, the doctor receives a complete clinical picture of the disease.

When examining, it is important to take into account the fact that an aneurysm in its symptoms is similar to other ailments. That is why a special role in diagnostics is assigned to differential research.

Detection of pathology is also possible with a screening examination. Experts recommend that he regularly go to men after 60 years who can not abandon addiction or have a history of this disease.

Heart aortic aneurysm: treatment of

Both symptoms and therapy of the disease are directly related. After the doctor confirms the final diagnosis, you can proceed to treatment.

In the asymptomatic course of pathology, therapy is limited to monitoring the condition of the vascular surgeon and continuous radiographic monitoring. To reduce the risk of complications, some patients are prescribed anticoagulants.

Surgical intervention is indicated for larger aneurysms( > 4 cm), as well as for progressive growth. Such treatment is recommended for almost all patients who had to face a pathology called "aortic aneurysm of the heart."

The operation involves the excision of the affected area of ​​the vessel, suturing the defect or replacing it with a vascular prosthesis.

Unfortunately, the prognosis for this disease is in most cases unfavorable. Since the beginning of the development of an aneurysm and for about five years about 75% of patients die. Half of them die from a sudden rupture of the aorta, and the rest - from concomitant pathologies( stroke, ischemia).

Complications of aneurysm

  1. Defects of the arterial valve and heart failure.
  2. Aneurysm rupture. In this case, there is extensive bleeding into the pleural cavity, respiratory system, heart bag or esophagus. In case of bleeding, a cardiac tamponade develops directly into the pericardial cavity. Acute thrombosis of aneurysm.

The above complications, if not timely medical care, can result in death for patients diagnosed with an "aortic heart aneurysm".Treatment of this ailment is selected by the doctor, based on the general condition of the patient and the degree of severity of the pathology.

Preventive measures

When it comes to preventing such a serious ailment, all recommendations for a healthy lifestyle and the rejection of addictions should be taken into account first. As already mentioned, for a long time can occur in the latent form of an aneurysm of the aorta of the heart. Symptoms in this case do not manifest, the patient does not know about the presence of such a pathology. That's why if a person is at risk( smokes, high blood pressure, there are cases of aortic dissection in a family history), a full diagnostic examination should be performed regularly. Usually ultrasound, aortography using contrast medium and MRI are used for these purposes. Timely detection of ailment can save a person's life.

Conclusion

This article contains information on the topic "Heart aortic aneurysm: causes, symptoms and treatment".Do not be afraid of this disease, because timely diagnosis and competent treatment in the early stages can almost forever forget about the problem.