In what cases should you take into account the Rh factor? Pregnancy and blood transfusion
Rhesus factor, it is written as Ph, is the designation of the blood group system, one of the 30 existing today. Refers only to the antigen D.
What is the Rh factor?
The blood group and the Rh factor are genetically determined characteristics. That is, we get them from parents. Rhesus factor is a protein found on the surface of red blood cells - erythrocytes. It can be of only two kinds - positive( +) and negative( -).
Initially, it was found in monkeys( in particular, in rhesus monkeys, where the term got its name), but with the development of methods for studying the human body, its availability was soon revealed in humans. Most often occurs in representatives of the Caucasoid race and is transmitted from parents to children as a stronger sign. In 15% of the population( 7% of them are Africans) the Rh factor is absent, therefore, they are Rh-negative.
Negative or positive Rh factor practically does not affect the quality of human life. However, in certain situations it becomes extremely important. Let us consider these situations in more detail. So, in which cases should you take into account the Rh factor?
Rhesus factor and pregnancy planning
If you and your partner plan to become parents in the near future, you need to conduct a series of studies that will help to eliminate the presence of diseases that prevent conception or interrupt pregnancy. In the future it will help to avoid miscarriages, congenital pathologies, etc.
One of the most important studies is the determination of the Rh factor of both parents. Most often they are both positive. When both parents are "negative", a conflict, that is, a discrepancy that entails complications, can not be either. If the expectant mother is "positive" and her father is "negative," there should be no problems with bearing the fetus, since the child will inherit the protein from her.
Complexity occurs when a woman is "negative" and her partner has a positive Rh factor, hence, the baby is also likely to be "positive."In this case, there may be a conflict during pregnancy.
During the gestation of a child, it is necessary to constantly give blood for the determination of antibodies. In what cases should you take into account the Rh factor? When a woman is pregnant, to avoid conflict.
Rhesus conflict in pregnant
Rhesus conflict itself does not always manifest itself by itself - many "negative" mummies carry several "positive" children quite successfully and without complications. Only 0.8% of pregnant women have this kind of conflict. Simply put, the phenomenon is very rare, but serious, requiring constant monitoring.
Rh-conflict is that the mother's body begins to reject the fruit, considering it a foreign body.
Doctors claim that the first pregnancy of a "negative" woman must necessarily be preserved, since the risk of conflict is much lower than in the subsequent ones. During gestation, it is very important that the woman's body does not come into contact with the "positive" blood of the child, because if antibodies to it were developed once, subsequent pregnancies involve a high risk of miscarriage.
The ingestion of a child's blood into the mother's body can be triggered by trauma, miscarriage, childbirth. If this happens, then the mother's organism will perceive the fruit as an aggressor and begin to attack it through the placenta. In the body of a woman at this moment there will be no disturbances, this reaction is natural, but the baby has an intense gluing of red blood cells, which leads to the death of the fetus. Carrying out a second child to a woman will be more difficult, since the awakened immunity starts to constantly produce antibodies against the fetus even without predisposing factors.
If the blood enters the woman's body during childbirth, the child may develop hemolytic disease. Prevent it is important before the birth of the baby by introducing a certain group of drugs - anti-rhesus immunoglobulin.
Blood transfusion and Rh factor
When should the rhesus factor be taken into account? When there is a need for transfusion( blood transfusion), the blood group and Rh factor are crucial. Transfusion is usually required after or during surgery, especially if the patient has lost a lot of blood. This can be planned operations, when the doctor knows in advance that the patient will need support in the form of donor material. Compatibility of Rh-factor of blood in this case is extremely important.
In the case of transfusion of incompatible material, red blood cells in the patient's blood will begin to stick together due to interaction with antibodies that are produced in his body in response to ingress of the stranger.
As a result, the blood ceases to perform its basic functions.
Today we found out in which cases it is necessary to take into account the Rh factor. At the same time I want to clarify that in itself its presence or absence, not counting the above-mentioned extreme cases, absolutely does not affect the quality of life.