Topiramate: instructions for use, reviews for migraines, analogues
Violations of the nervous system most negatively affect the functionality of the entire body. For example, with a disease such as epilepsy, a person receives a life-long disability. Naturally, with such a pathology you have to struggle all the time to reduce the frequency or prevent the manifestation of seizures. The drug "Topiramate", the instruction for use of which will be set forth below, is precisely intended for the treatment of this pathology. In addition, it can be used to fight other diseases. This drug is intended for long-term use.
General description and composition of the preparation
"Topiramate", the instructions for use of which must be clearly explained to the patient, is an antiepileptic drug that is used to stop and prevent seizures. Most often, the drug is produced in the form of tablets, inside of which a white powder is observed. Tablets in blisters are orange. In one of them may contain 25 or 10 mg of active ingredient - topiramate. In addition, the product includes calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, magnesium stearate, starch, heavy magnesium hydroxycarbonate. The substance can block the action of secondary impulses and prevent epileptic seizures.
After the patient takes the substance, it is absorbed very quickly in the stomach and intestines. With blood proteins, the main active substance binds only by 13-17%.The maximum amount of topiramate in the blood is observed after 120 minutes. Excretion of the drug and its metabolites is mainly done with urine. The half-life of the drug is 21 hours. Although this period may increase in case of problems with the liver and kidneys.
Indications for use
If you were prescribed Topiramate, the instructions for use indicate such indications:
- Seizures provoked by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome( as a maintenance drug).
- Partial or tonic-clonic generalized convulsions( monotherapy).
- Epilepsy in children from 3 years of age and adults( first time established).
- For prevention of migraine in adults.
- Post-traumatic stress.
- Alcoholism syndrome.
- Manic-depressive forms of psychosis.
- Bipolar disorder.
The medicine is able to normalize the mood. As you can see, Topiramate, the instruction for its use is always in the package with the drug, has a small range of uses. However, even in these cases, it is necessary to be cautious with its administration, since this medicine is considered to be strong.
Contraindications and restrictions on the use of
Despite the effectiveness of this tool, in some cases it is not recommended to prescribe it. Among the contraindications can be identified as follows:
- Child age( up to 2 years).The drug is too strong for the child's body.
- Intolerance of the agent or some of its components.
- Pregnancy and lactation period. The main active substance is able to penetrate into breast milk through all barriers.
- Propensity to form kidney stones.
- Serious inflammatory processes in the body, severe chronic pathologies.
When prescribing a topiramate medication for migraine, a doctor needs to be especially careful about those patients who have problems with kidney and liver function. Removal of the drug from the body in this case slows down, so unexpected complications may arise.
What side effects can occur?
If you were prescribed a medicine Topiramat, the instruction provides for the appearance of such undesirable reactions:
- Dizziness, headache, vision problems, speech impairment, increased nervousness. There may be psychomotor retardation, fatigue, inability to concentrate attention.
- Drowsiness, emotional lability, depressive state.
- In rare cases, a short-term memory loss, confusion, a violation of taste.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Hepatic failure.
- Noninfectious hepatitis.
- Weight loss.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Sometimes the temperature may rise.
- Absence of menstruation, epistaxis, decrease in the level of leukocytes in the blood.
- In very rare cases, hallucinations can occur.
- Decreased visual acuity and impaired motor function of the eyelids( they move spontaneously).Another can be inflammation of the conjunctiva.
- Inflammation of the gums.
- Dryness in the oral cavity.
- Decreased libido in men and women. The first can even attack impotence. Gastritis and gastric ulcer.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
- Unpleasant odor from the mouth.
- Muscle pain, weakness.
- Noise or ringing in the ears, and sometimes hearing impairment.
- Violation of writing and reading in children.
- Numbness of the extremities.
- Slowed growth in children, weakened bone strength.
- Allergic reactions appearing on the skin: itching, rash, wounds.
As you can see, the preparation " Topiramate" should also be taken with caution when migraines occur. He is especially hard for children. Therefore, you must strictly follow the dosage. At the same time, both the doctor and parents should monitor the baby's condition all the time.
Dosage and administration features of
Only the physician can prescribe the drug presented. Independently it is impossible to begin its reception, as there is a possibility of deterioration. In addition, this medicine is sold on prescription.
If you have been prescribed Topiramate, the instruction provides for oral administration, regardless of the form of release. You can drink medicine together with food, especially since it does not affect the action of tablets in any way. It is advisable to take the drug at the same time. Do not chew or crack tablets, since they have a bitter taste. In addition, the shredding of the drug can negatively affect its effectiveness.
Use the substance as follows:
- If topiramate tablets are part of complex anticonvulsant therapy, the daily dosage of the drug may range between 200-400 mg. This norm is usually divided into 2 receptions. It is best to begin treatment with small doses( 25-50 mg), which are taken for 7 days once a day. Further, the dose is gradually increased by 25 or 50 mg over a period of a week or two until an optimal amount is obtained that gives a positive effect. In this case, take the medicine twice a day. The maximum dose that an adult patient can take per day is 1600 mg.
- If the doctor prescribed a child over 2 years of age, "Topiramate", the use of this drug is done according to this scheme: you need to start taking the pill from a dose of 25 mg twice a day. The total amount of the drug per day is 5-9 mg / kg body weight. It is best to apply the medication in the evening, before going to bed, to reduce the risk of side effects. The primary course of treatment is 7 days. If necessary, the dosage for one to two weeks increases by 1-3 mg / kg. The reception is divided into 2 times.
- If the drug is to be used for monotherapy, the doctor should show increased attention to the patient. He should monitor the frequency of seizures after replacing anticonvulsant therapy with other medications. You should start with a minimum of 25 mg per day once a day. Further, the dose may increase, but it is done gradually, during 1-2 weeks.
- If the patient does not tolerate such therapy, its intensity can be reduced, or the interval of increase in the intake rate may be extended.
To ensure that the frequency of seizures does not increase, it is necessary to carry out the cancellation of the medicine gradually. Weekly the dosage of the drug is reduced by 100 mg.
If you are prescribed Topiramate, the instructions for use( analogous to what you will see later) exists to avoid the consequences of excessive doses of the drug. However, there are cases when the patient for some reason takes the pill more than necessary. Then an overdose may occur.
It is characterized by increased seizures, the appearance of drowsiness, visual impairment, coordination and thinking. Possible side effects of overdose can increase. Naturally, in this case it is necessary to take emergency measures that will help to avoid getting a lot of substance into the systemic bloodstream.
First of all, you should call an ambulance. Further, the procedure for gastric lavage is carried out. The patient also needs to take absorbent drugs: Enterosgel, activated charcoal. If the situation is too severe, the patient is urgently hospitalized. To remove the drug from the blood, the hemodialysis procedure is applied.
Features of interaction with other drugs
If you need to take Topiramate, instructions for use( synonyms can have the same effect on the body) suggests that it is not compatible with all medicines. For example, it can be combined with valproic acid, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine. These drugs are designed to treat nervous disorders. Joint reception of the presented means does not influence their concentration in blood plasma. However, the dose of Topiramate may decrease. In any case, with the appointment of these drugs for combined treatment, the dosage of all funds should be adjusted accordingly.
If the doctor decided to prescribe the medication in conjunction with "Pioglitazone", then it is necessary to monitor the diabetic status of the patient. When combining "Topiramate" with "Metformin", a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the body is possible. The joint administration of this drug with "Acetazolamide" and its analogues increases the risk of kidney stones.
Consider also the fact that it takes several days to purify the body of the drug and its metabolites. In people with impaired renal function this time can be doubled. You need to know this, as you will have to adjust the dosage. The doctor calculates the rate of medication in each individual case.
If you have to use Topiramate, tablets( instructions for use are the main document controlling the taking of the drug) should be drunk according to the instructions of your doctor. However, there are some special instructions that should not be ignored:
- In case of drug cancellation, you should not do it abruptly. The fact is that there is a possibility that the frequency and intensity of seizures will increase. Therefore, the reduction in the drug should be done gradually.
- One of the side effects of the drug may be anorexia, which leads to severe exhaustion of the body due to weight loss. To prevent this, consult a nutritionist. The diet should be adjusted so that the body receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals for its normal operation.
- During therapy, you should not use psychotropic drugs and alcohol.
- Topiramat medicine( instructions, reviews and availability of analogues is very important information for the patient) has a strong influence on the reaction rate, so driving a car or controlling complex mechanisms during treatment should not be.
- Do not give pills to children under 2 years old.
- Very attentive it is necessary to be to those patients, in whom there is a violation of the functionality of the kidneys and liver.
- If you forget to take pills strictly on time, then try to drink them when you remember. However, if the time has come for the next appointment, then to catch up the missed one should not take a double dose. It is better to continue to drink the medicine according to the prescribed plan.
- There is no reliable information about the mutagenic effect of the drug on the human body. However, in a study on rats, the drug provoked the appearance of tumors of the bladder. However, this happened when the permissible norm was exceeded and in rare cases.
If you take Topiramate, the instructions for use( the drug testimonials you will find out later) indicates some precautions that you must follow to avoid the appearance of unwanted reactions:
- If the patient is on hemodialysis, then for effective drug actionIt is necessary to additionally prescribe half the daily dose before the blood purification procedure begins and after it.
- During the withdrawal of the drug should increase the amount of fluid consumed. This will prevent the deposition of kidney stones.
- If there is a serious weight loss, then you can adjust the diet and add to it biologically active additives that promote the assimilation of nutrients.
- It is undesirable in conjunction with "Topiramate" to take substances that provoke the suppression of the nervous system.
As you can see, this drug is very serious, so do not take self-medication, because you can make it worse.
Storage Features, Analogues and Feedback
If you are not satisfied with the drug, you can ask about analogues of a drug such as Topiramate."Topamax", the instruction on which application in many ways is similar to the previous description, is one of them. It has the same active substance. There are other analogues of the medicine: Topsaver, Toreal, Maxitopyr. It is impossible to pass to these drugs independently. Perhaps, they will not give a positive effect, because their composition may differ. Before you start taking medications you should consult your doctor. Moreover, without a prescription they are unlikely to be written.
The substance must be kept in a dark place, where the slightest ray of light, moisture, does not penetrate. Do not put the substance near heat sources. The warranty period is 2 years. After this time, the drug should be disposed of. And this must be done so that children can not reach him.
As for the reviews, they are different. Patients noted the high effectiveness of the drug in controlling seizures. He is good at migraine headaches. However, the tool has a fairly high cost. For example, the price of one package may be 600 rubles or more. If the drug is used correctly, it helps to achieve a long-term remission. Although there are other opinions. For example, in some cases, children experience memory and attention impairment, developmental delay, and someone does not help at all. There is also a worsening of the kidneys.
It should be noted that in some regions of the country, the prescription medication can be obtained by a free prescription, with certain benefits. But before you buy the product, you need to consult a doctor who will give the appropriate permission. Remember, self-medication is fraught with serious complications. We examined the effect of such a drug as Topiramate, instructions, reviews on migraines and much more. Consult doctors and be healthy!