Priority problems for the patient are. .. Nursing care
During rehabilitation after treatment at home or in the hospital, as well as in case of loss of working capacity, the patients need qualified help and support. In this case, the main problems of the patient affect not only physiological, but also psychological needs. Support from an experienced nurse has an extremely positive impact on a person and leads to his speedy recovery.
Priority problems of the patient are, first of all, the need for thorough care, compliance with medical prescriptions. The presence of nursing care in this case is a guarantee that the patient will not be helpless in difficult situations or in the absence of relatives.
The main problems of the patient
The bulk of immobile patients first of all feels discomfort due to limited mobility of the body. Hence the shortage of self-propulsion, a change in the habitual diet. The result of the above problems is often the development of violations in the functioning of organs and systems, in particular, the appearance of edema, headache, dyspnea, pain in the joints, heart rhythm failures.
In turn, the patient's psychological problems are expressed in a lack of communication, in a sense of general moral discomfort. Without support from a nurse or a nurse, such discomfort can develop into apathy to the world around him. Against the background of a stationary state, protracted depressive states often appear.
Priority problems of
Priority problems of the patient are the following pathologies and conditions:
- lack of consciousness;
- incontinence of urine and feces or constipation;
- malfunction of the respiratory system;
- malfunctions in cardiac activity.
Potential problems of
At the stage of rehabilitation, a person with limited mobility can potentially have a number of difficulties. Without proper care for the patient, the development of pressure sores and diaper rash is likely. With prolonged lying in a supine position, the patient may suffer from muscle tissue malnutrition, which often flows into osteoporosis and is accompanied by bone fractures.
Among other things, the patient's problems - real and potential - affect the risk increase:
- for the formation of venous thrombi;
- development of pneumonia;
- occurrence of urological infections;
- manifestations of complications that affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Basics of the nursing care plan
Nursing care should be based on the following provisions. To begin, the caregiver needs to achieve equalization of the patient's body parts, to think about how to perform the limb movements for resistance as accurately as possible.
In addition, the sisters should warn the victim of the possible danger of making slopes and turns, explain the basic principles of biomechanics to the patient.
Of particular importance is the control of the patient's nutrition. For the early restoration of the diet of a person chained to a hospital bed, should include foods saturated with proteins, phosphorus, calcium. Therefore, food is based on the consumption of legumes, fish, meat and liver, dairy products.
In what cases do you resort to nursing care?
Support of the patient by a health worker or a nurse looks topical:
- if the patient is in a coma;
- when recovering from a stroke, heart attack, other disorders of the cardiovascular system;
- during the rehabilitation period, aimed at eliminating the consequences of serious injuries;
- after surgery;
- in case of development of a cancer patient;
- for psychological disorders, mental illness, nerve abnormalities;
- in cases when the patient's basic needs can not be realized independently;
- when serving infirm people, people of senile age.
First stage of nursing care - examination
The main goal of the patient's nursing survey is to collect data on his state of health. Initially, health professionals collect information to form a medical history. Then they resort to physical examination, in particular, measurement of body temperature, arterial and eye pressure. Subsequently, a blood and urine test is performed, and the biochemical indices of bodily fluids are examined.
The second stage of nursing care - identifying the patient's problems
The next stage of nursing care determines the potential and existing, as well as priority problems of the patient. It can be stressful conditions, fear of surgical intervention, discomfort due to limited mobility of the body.
Typically, health professionals identify simultaneously different types of patient problems. In such situations, the main task is the identification of difficulties, the elimination of which requires urgent intervention. As an example, it is necessary to cite an increase in blood pressure, stress, the development of pain syndromes. On the contrary, intermediate problems do not pose a health hazard - discomfort in the postoperative period, lack of self-control, and so on.
The third stage of nursing care - setting goals for
There are a number of tasks that invariably put nurses in the care of a patient:
- formation of a patient information database;
- revealing the patient's objective needs during the rehabilitation period;
- arrangement of the main priorities in the maintenance;
- develop a patient care plan, taking into account the patient's current and potential problems;
- determination of how effective the plan of measures will be in terms of successful rehabilitation of the victim.
This takes time to evaluate each goal. The duration of evaluation here depends on the etiology of the disease, objective problems, the patient's condition.
Nursing care involves the realization of several goals: long-term - more than 2 weeks and short-term - 1-1,5 weeks. For example, when setting goals, a nurse can teach a patient for several days to take medication alone, instill eye drops without outside help. At the end of the allotted time, the caregiver must determine how effective the patient is coping with these actions.
Fourth stage of nursing care - intervention
The main goal of nursing intervention is the activities aimed at the implementation of previously set goals. The following systems of intervention of the health worker are distinguished:
- Compensatory( absolute) - several categories of patients are needed. First of all, the victims, who are in a critical or unconscious state. To service patients, according to the presented system, resorted to in cases of medical prescriptions aimed at limiting mobility. In addition, the approach is applied if a person can not make informed decisions on his own.
- Partially-compensating - the distribution of actions between the patient and the nurse depends on the degree of limitation of the motor abilities of the victim, as well as the predisposition of the latter to learning.
- Supportive - the intervention system is used in situations where the patient is able to independently learn to care for himself and perform simple tasks. At the same time, the presence of the nurse and control of her actions are a prerequisite for caring for the patient.
Fifth stage of nursing care - evaluation of the results of
This may cause nursing problems. The patient must be brought into active state as soon as possible. Therefore, at this stage, the health worker has to assess the degree of implementation of the items in the plan, compare the results of the activities with the desired results.
In the end of evaluating the results, the sister draws appropriate conclusions, makes notes in the medical history. The documentation indicates whether the patient's condition improved or worsened as a result of the measures taken.
If the results of nursing care are unsatisfactory, errors are detected. Previously set goals change to more realistic, achievable in existing conditions. Eventually, the action plan is revised, corrections are made to the nursing care plan.
Conclusion As you can see, the patient's priority problems are the physical and psychological discomfort that arises in response to limited body mobility, the need for prolonged compliance with bed rest. With regard to nursing care, such activities not only contribute to the speedy rehabilitation of the patient, but also the adaptation of the native victim to the changes that have arisen because of the health problems of a loved one. In general, the dissatisfaction of the patient's needs always causes the emergence of certain problems.