Transplantation of the cornea of the eye: description, indications, cost, reviews. Microsurgery of the eye
In the modern world there is a rapid development of medicine. Achievements are observed in all spheres. This applies to surgical and therapeutic methods of treatment, diagnostics, scientific discoveries. Not an exception and ophthalmology. With the advent of microsurgical techniques, eye operations have become much safer and more effective. Advantages of modern ophthalmology is a quick and painless recovery of vision. Transplantation of the cornea of the eye, which previously seemed impossible, is now conducted in all specialized centers. As a result of keratoplasty, many people again gain the ability to see the world around them.
Transplanting the cornea of the eye is what?
This operation has a scientific name - keratoplasty. It is also called the transplantation of the cornea of the eye. Since this organ of vision does not have blood supply, in most cases it takes root and the operation is considered successful. After keratoplasty, vision is significantly improved or completely restored. In general, the donor corneal transplant is common. Replacement of damaged parts or the whole body is performed. In some cases, artificial material is transplanted. Most often this operation is under general anesthesia. Nevertheless, some specialists recommend keratoplasty using local anesthesia. The effectiveness of the operation is almost always observed, and complications after corneal transplantation are extremely rare. For these reasons, keratoplasty is a sought-after treatment method all over the world.
When do corneal transplants occur?
Transplantation of the cornea of the eye is carried out only on strict indications. In most cases, the cause of damage to the body are injuries and inflammatory diseases. In both cases, there is a significant visual impairment or a complete loss of visibility( less often).Sometimes keratoplasty is carried out for cosmetic purposes. Allocate the following reasons for the operation:
- Belma on the eye. The causes can be both dystrophic diseases, and trauma to the organ of vision.
- Retinopathy. These are the forms that are not amenable to therapeutic treatment. These include dystrophic, bullous retinopathy. Injury to the cornea. May occur when foreign bodies enter the eye.
- Chemical burns. Thinning of the corneal layer. Observed with a disease such as keratoconus.
- Ulcerative and erosive defects.
- Corneal opacity. Usually is a consequence of laser procedures.
- Cosmetic defects.
Contraindications to keratoplasty
In most cases, eye microsurgery is a field of medicine that is widely available. Contraindications to operations on the organs of vision are rare. Keratoplasty is carried out by everyone who has these defects. There are no age restrictions for this operation. Nevertheless, there are 3 conditions in which keratoplasty is prohibited. These include:
- Belmas on the eye that have blood supply. The presence of blood vessels makes corneal transplant surgery ineffective.
- A combination of belly and increased intraocular pressure( glaucoma).
- Concomitant diseases, in which the probability of graft rejection is high. These include immunological pathologies, decompensated diabetes mellitus.
What are the varieties of keratoplasty
Like most operations, keratoplasty can be carried out in different ways. It depends on the type of transplant( donor or artificial cornea), the magnitude and depth of the defect. Keratoplasty can be total and partial. In the first case, the whole cornea is replaced. In the second part of the organ, the size of the graft is 4 to 6 mm. In addition, subtotal retinoplasty is sometimes performed. It means replacing the cornea practically over the entire area, except for a small rim( 1-2 mm) located around the limb. Depending on the depth of the lesion, a through and layer-by-layer transplantation is indicated. In the first case, the defect occupies the entire thickness of the organ. Layered retinoplasty can be anterior and posterior( the external or internal wall of the cornea is affected).As a donor body use cadaveric material, including from newborns. Artificial graft is made in special laboratories.
How to prepare for keratoplasty?
Eye microsurgery, like other types of surgical procedures, involves preparation prior to intervention. First of all, it is necessary to conduct therapeutic treatment of inflammatory processes. This applies to any infections of the eye and eyelids( conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis).After the treatment of infection, a complete diagnosis of the organs of vision is carried out. Ophthalmic examination, laboratory tests( OAB, OAM, blood biochemistry) are performed. It is also necessary to find out what pathologies the patient has. This is very important, as some diseases can be contraindications for the operation. On the eve of retinoplasty it is necessary to observe the "hungry regime".
Technique for corneal transplantation
Transplantation of the cornea is performed using special microsurgical equipment. To perform retinoplasty, perform both traditional surgical intervention and laser procedure. In recent years, the second method is considered more preferable, as this reduces the postoperative period and reduces the risk of complications. Transplantation of the cornea of the eye has a certain technique of execution. First, the patient is laid on the couch and anesthetized. After that, the eyelids and the eye are fixed( beyond the edge of the sclera).The next stage is the removal of the damaged organ or part of it( performed by a laser or a surgical instrument).Then the cornea is transplanted. The final stage involves inspection of the joints, examination for complications.
Postoperative period with keratoplasty
After transplanting the cornea of the eye, the patient should be under medical supervision for at least a few hours. Despite the fact that the patient is released home, he needs to undergo an examination with an ophthalmologist. Also after surgery, a gentle eye regimen is recommended( minimum load on the organ of vision).With surgical correction, the sutures are removed after a few months( up to a year).Potential complications of keratoplasty are bleeding, inflammation, rejection of the graft. In these cases, there are unpleasant sensations, photophobia, pruritus, etc. Any symptoms are a reason for an urgent appeal to the ophthalmologist.
Eye corneal transplantation: expert feedback
According to doctors, retinoplasty is a safe and effective method of restoring vision. It is recommended to all patients who do not have contraindications. Patients remain satisfied with the operation. Vision persists for many years after transplantation, and complications are very rare. Currently, the laser corneal transplant is considered preferable. The cost of surgery depends on the choice of clinic. The average price is 50-70 thousand rubles for one eye. When choosing an artificial graft, the cost is doubled.