Lung carcinoma: symptoms, stages, treatment, prognosis
Often the symptoms of lung cancer are not immediately apparent. In this case, malaise can be characteristic of other diseases. When diagnosing such an ailment, the physician should prescribe a thorough examination. Whether the therapy will be successful depends on many factors. Avoid the development of severe complications can be, promptly applying for help to specialists. So what is lung carcinoma?
The basic concept of
Lung cancer is carcinoma. In other words, it is a neoplasm in the respiratory system. Localized malignant tumor in the lungs or bronchi. Among oncological pathologies, lung carcinoma ranks second. And in some countries and at all the first.
If the doctor does not contact the doctor in time, such a disease can cause the development of irreversible processes. In such cases, the ailment can lead to death. As the statistics show, mortality due to lung carcinoma has the highest rate among cancer diseases.
Small cell lung carcinoma
This is one type of respiratory cancer. According to statistics, a malignant tumor takes only 1/5 of the total number of oncological diseases. Often, this pathology is called a low-grade carcinoma of the lung.
This type of cancer is often diagnosed in the patient with delay, because such an oncological disease has not a pronounced symptom. However, the development of the disease is characterized by a fairly rapid course, as well as the appearance of metastases.
The second type of
The second type is called non-small cell carcinoma. In this case, the ailment has several subspecies. Their classification depends on the tissues that were affected by the disease. At the moment, the following diseases are diagnosed:
- Lung adenocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm that affects primarily those cells that participate in the production of mucus. This type of lung cancer, according to statistics, ranks second.
- Large cell carcinoma of the lung. In this case, the neoplasm is formed from cells that have a rounded shape. A malignant tumor is formed in the layers of the non-corroded epithelium. Often, the initial stage of a similar pathology runs unnoticed for the patient.
- Carcinoma of the gland - a neoplasm mainly consists only of glandular tissues. The development of cancer begins in the so-called cambial cells. In this case, the tumor looks like a node of gray or brownish-yellow hue.
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung - cancer begins to develop in cells lining the pathways of the respiratory system. This is one of the most common oncological pathologies. According to statistics, the ailment ranks first.
- Bronchoalveolar carcinoma - in the formation of a tumor in this case, cells that form mucus are involved, as well as those that do not secrete it. The process of propagation preserves the structure of the alveoli, without destroying the architectonics of the lungs.
The main cause of the development of the disease
Lung cancer is carcinoma, the main reasons for the development of which are not all identified. The conducted researches allowed to establish that there is a certain connection between the onset of the disease and the influence of certain factors. The most important cause of lung cancer is smoking tobacco. After inhaling the smoke, the patient poisons his body with 60 carcinogens, among which:
- radionuclides of radon;
The main component is nicotine. This substance can cause the development of a huge number of pathologies in the human body. In this case, nicotine is the initiator of malignant tumors. After all, the substance is able to depress the immune system. Only 10% of people suffering from oncological lung diseases, the development of pathology is not associated with smoking tobacco products.
Those who suffer from this predilection endanger the people around them. As studies have shown, the smoke that comes out of the lungs during smoking is much more dangerous than that inhaled by a smoker. It contains even more harmful components. Those who are near a smoking person suffer from passive smoking.
The damage caused by tobacco depends on the intensity of smoking, as well as on the length of service. Those who can not get rid of bad habits and smoke for more than 2 years are at risk. In addition, much depends on how much a person needs a cigarette a day. If a person completely refuses tobacco, then the process of restoring the lungs starts.
Lung carcinoma can develop not only because of smoking. There are other factors that cause the development of such a pathology. These include:
- Dust. Its particles, hitting through the airways into the body, can cause the development of cancer. In this case, the size of the fractions is also important. Very small particles can penetrate deeply into the lung tissue.
- Viruses. Some pathogens can lead to the development of lung cancer. They activate the processes of uncontrolled cell division. To such pathogens it is necessary to carry: papillomavirus, cytomegalovirus.
- Radon. During the decay of uranium, radioactive radium is released. Both substances are very dangerous. However, the decay of radium produces radon. This gas can be released from the earth's layers. It all depends on the composition of the breed. In this case, the substance is able to accumulate in certain materials, walls of buildings. The gas may well cause the development of lung carcinoma.
- Asbestos is a substance that provokes the development of oncological processes.
The main symptoms of the disease
How does lung carcinoma manifest? Symptoms of the disease may not appear for a long time. In general, the following conditions and pathologies should be attributed to signs of ailment:
- loss of consciousness;
- headache and dizziness;
- problems with eyesight;
- susceptibility to infectious diseases of the respiratory system;
- wheezing in the lungs;
- presence of sputum, having a brown color, and also containing blood veins;
- dyspnea, which can increase with increased loads;
- increase in temperature for no apparent reason;
- numbness of fingers;
- shoulder pain;
- weight loss and lack of appetite;
- cough is chronic;
- chest pain, worse with deep inspiration.
And even if there are such signs of disease, you can skip its initial stage. After all, many lung diseases have a similar symptomatology. Completely get rid of a terrible disease can only be at the initial stage.
Signs of other stages of cancer
If lung carcinoma has led to the development of more serious complications, the patient may suffer from other symptoms, among which:
- pain in the bones;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- jaundice sclera, as well as skin integument.
The stages of the disease
The danger of such a pathological process is largely due to the stages of development and spread of the disease not only in the lungs, but also in other tissues and organs. At the moment, doctors call 4 degrees of disease:
- The first stage. The neoplasm does not affect the tissues located side by side, and has a clear place of localization. The tumor size does not exceed 3 cm. Carcinoma affects only one segment of the bronchus or lung.
- The second stage. The tumor gradually spreads, and its size reaches 6 cm. In the lymph nodes located side by side, there are single metastases.
- Third stage. At this stage, the pathological process affects not only the lymph nodes, but also neighboring organs and tissues: the pleura, bones, vessels, esophagus. In this case, the growth of the size exceeds 6 cm and goes beyond the limits of one segment.
- How is lung carcinoma manifested at this stage? Stage 4 has more serious complications. In most cases, the patient is no longer possible to help, since the tumor extends beyond the respiratory organs. There are not only local, but also distant metastases.
Basic diagnostic methods for
To begin with, the patient should consult a doctor who, after a careful examination, will prescribe an additional examination. At the moment, there are many methods to diagnose lung carcinoma. These include:
- X-ray examination;
- oncologic markers;
Each of the methods has its own characteristics. They also allow to determine the presence of oncological pathology at the initial stage of development. The main thing is to turn to a specialist in time.
Is it possible to cure
How is carcinoma of the lung treated? Treatment should be done promptly. Otherwise, malignant growth will only increase. Therefore, the most important method of therapy is surgical intervention. If the situation allows, then remove not only the tumor, but also seize the lymph node and the tissues located side by side.
If surgical intervention is not possible, palliative methods are used that can significantly alleviate the patient's condition. If the moment is missed, and distant metastases appear, then such methods of therapy are discarded.
Is chemotherapy and radiotherapy used?
The choice of method of therapy depends on many factors, including the stage of lung carcinoma. The drug is chosen by chemotherapy for each patient individually. This is the only way to cope with the type of cancer that has been detected in the patient. Such therapy can significantly improve the patient's condition, while reducing the size of the tumor. Unfortunately, this method, unfortunately, does not allow to completely rid the person of the disease.
Chemotherapy is usually performed to prepare a person for surgery. It can be resorted to and after surgery to completely destroy the affected cells, which can cause the recurrence of carcinoma. It is worth noting that chemotherapy in some cases is appointed to improve quality, as well as to prolong the life of a person.
Radiation therapy is also carried out in the same way.
Carcinoma of the lung: Forecast
If the patient has not applied for qualified help for 2 years, the chances of recovery are significantly reduced. As statistics show, in 9 0% of cases a fatal outcome occurs.
If surgery has been performed in a timely manner, and then the effect of radiation therapy or chemotherapy has been fixed, 70% of patients will have the opportunity to live for another 5 years.
There are situations when the patient should not be exposed to chemotherapy and surgery. Then a special treatment is appointed, which can significantly alleviate his condition, and also prolong life. Such cases are not uncommon in the diagnosis of the last stage of lung carcinoma. In such situations, the patient may be held, by selecting individually, all the procedures:
- psychological assistance;
- symptom relief;
- blood transfusion;
To avoid the development of lung carcinoma, it is recommended to minimize all contact with carcinogen substances, as often as possible to ventilate the room while doing a wet cleaning. It is also worth noting smoking tobacco products. If you work in an enterprise where the concentration of dust is increased, then such work should be abandoned or use reliable protection.
To identify the development of the oncological process at an early stage, experts recommend once a year to undergo a fluorography.