Disease virus: symptoms, transmission routes, treatment and prevention
What is the foot and mouth disease virus? How is the infection transmitted? What are the symptoms of the disease in animals and humans? What is dangerous for the foot and mouth disease virus? How is the disease treated? All this will be discussed in our publication.
Pathogen of the disease
The causative agent of the foot and mouth disease virus is a specific structure of ribonucleic acids, which belongs to the family of picornaviruses. The size of such infectious particles is about 30 nanometers. The microscopic structure consists of RNA surrounded by a protein membrane. Once in the human body, or an animal, the virus affects lymph. The infection develops for 48 hours.
The foot and mouth disease virus is resistant to heat and cold in the wild. However, instantly it dies when exposed to a temperature of more than +80 ° C.Being in the faeces of an animal that are in the environment, the pathogen of infection passes into the inactive phase, retaining vital functions for more than 100 days. The foot and mouth disease virus loses its ability to reproduce under the influence of ultraviolet rays, as well as disinfectants.
Mechanism of infection development
Once penetrated into the body, the viral pathogen concentrates on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and damaged areas of the skin. In places of infection in the tissue, the infection accumulates in small vesicles. Here, active reproduction of the virus is observed. Then the infection spreads through the bloodstream, attacking the tissues of organs and systems. Over time, intoxication of the body. Pathological ribonucleic structures are deposited in the epithelium of the oral cavity and nasopharynx, are concentrated in the urethra.
What categories of the population are at higher risk of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus? Usually the development of the disease is observed among the personnel of livestock enterprises. As practice shows, most often the virus infection affects milkmaids, beaters of cattle, people who work in slaughterhouses and meat processing plants. Sometimes, as a result of negligent attitude to work, the virus of a lizard in humans is observed among veterinarians and livestock specialists.
At the same time, no cases of transmission of pathogens from one person to another have been recorded. This is due to the low susceptibility of a person to infection. Among other things, after recovery people get short-term immunity, the duration of which is about a year.
Symptoms of foot and mouth disease in animals
Often the infection affects young growth of large cattle. Immature animals do not have immunity against the virus and are more likely to tolerate the disease. For the development of ailment, the appearance of fever is characterized by rashes on the limbs, mucous membranes of the mouth, tissues that are adjacent to the horns, as well as on the skin of the udder.
The virus of foot and mouth disease in animals attacks the body for 10-15 days. This is preceded by an incubation period that lasts 2-4 days. In most cases cattle can safely heal. However, in severe disease, a fatal outcome occurs.
Symptoms in humans
What are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease virus in humans? Often, during the incubation period, which lasts for about a week, the infected person has the first characteristic signs of the disease. These include:
- attacks of headache;
- general malaise;
- pain in the muscles;
- temperature increase to + 38. .. +39 ° С.
Then the human foot and mouth disease virus begins to progress. A few days later, the above symptoms are accompanied by a burning sensation and dryness in the oral cavity. There is photophobia, there are painful sensations when urinating.
As for the external signs of the foot and mouth disease virus, small whitish vesicles appear on the palate, lips, and the inner surface of the cheeks. About a day later, such aphthae are opened, which leads to the formation of sores of a bright red color. At this stage of the development of the disease, there is a gradual decrease in body temperature. Despite this comparative relief, the general condition of the infected person is deteriorating. There are severe pain when swallowing, there is an abundant secretion of saliva. Then the tissues of the tongue swell, and the lips become swollen. Speech becomes vague.
In the absence of adequate treatment for the foot and mouth disease virus, in humans, the bladder formations move to the skin of the legs and hands. Here the aphthae heal much faster than on the mucous membranes. Within 3-5 days there is no trace left of them.
The course of the disease in children is more severe. To the above symptoms, nausea, frequent urge to vomit, digestive disorders, changes in stool structure, diarrhea are often added.
Features of transmission of infection
Infection can spread between animals and from cattle to humans. The infected people are only carriers. However, they are unable to transmit the pathogen to another person. The most susceptible to the virus are children. This is facilitated by the presence of a fragile immune system.
How is the foot and mouth disease virus transmitted? The infection is spread by contact method. Infection is observed in case of penetration of the pathogen into the body when caring for large cattle. The virus can concentrate on animal hair, be contained in soils, feces.
Normally, people become infected by inhalation of dust weighed in airspace. Sometimes infection occurs when contact with dirty hands with the mucous membranes of the mouth. The disease can also develop with the use of meat and milk animals.
Treatment of foot and mouth disease in animals
The destruction of infection among cattle takes place by isolating sick animals from the rest of the herd. The latter are kept in separate rooms. Destroy the viral pathogen by introducing into the body disinfecting serums containing substances such as convalescents, lactoglobulins, immunolactones.
During the recovery period, animals are offered an abundance of clean water and nutritious food. Mucous membranes of the oral cavity are periodically treated with antiseptics. In order to eliminate ulcers on the skin surface, ointments with a healing effect are prescribed. Additionally, antibiotics and pain medications can be used.
In case of widespread infection in the herd, quarantine is introduced. At the onset of epidemics, the sick cattle are destroyed. Carcasses of animals are disposed of, burning in ovens. Quarantine measures are terminated upon passage of 21 days from the moment of fixation of the last case of infection.
Treatment of foot and mouth disease in humans
Therapy when infected with a viral pathogen requires placing an infected person in a hospital. Treatment involves regular disinfection of the oral cavity, healing of ulcers, the application of measures aimed at alleviating the general condition of the patient.
Infected people are offered easy-digestible food with a semi-liquid consistency. Food should be at room temperature and do not contain ingredients that can irritate mucous membranes. With the extensive spread of ulcerative manifestations, the patient is provided with food through the introduction of food by means of a probe.
For local treatment, exposure to affected areas of the skin with laser and ultraviolet radiation is used. For the early healing of sores, the treatment of tissues with florenal, oxolin or interferon ointment is prescribed.
To alleviate the suffering of the patient during the treatment, painkillers, cardiovascular and antipyretic drugs are used. If necessary, measures are taken to remove toxins from the body. To maintain immunity, vitamin complexes are prescribed.
In most cases, foot and mouth disease is not a mortal danger for humans. Forecasts for such a viral infection are extremely favorable. Complete recovery with the formation of appropriate immunity occurs in a fairly short period. The disease does not leave any consequences after itself. Cases of a lethal outcome are occasionally observed only among newborns and toddlers of early age.
To prevent infection with the foot and mouth disease virus, first of all, personal hygiene and hygiene. In order to prevent the disease, appropriate vaccination of animals is often carried out.
Of particular importance in terms of prevention is the implementation of instructions while working on farms, slaughterhouses, meat processing plants. According to the regulations, it is necessary to care for livestock, wearing protective clothing, a protective mask, gloves. After work is finished, it is important to wash your hands with soap and water.
To once again not expose yourself to the danger of infection with a virus, it is worth eating exclusively proven, safe products of animal origin. The dishes, in which meat or milk was stored in raw form, should be thoroughly cleaned using a detergent.
Latest registered case of outbreak of foot and mouth disease
In October of this year, a foot and mouth disease virus was recorded in Bashkiria. The emergency regime was introduced in the villages of Yermukhametovo and Urmekeyevo, which are located on the territory of Tuymazy district. In the region, blocked roads, leading to the marked settlements, and also established checkpoints. Special emergency response units equipped disinfecting stations. Active measures to disinfect the farms began.
During the elimination of the epidemic, a foot and mouth disease virus was detected in dairy products. Sale of the latter from hand to hand was banned. Cattle in the above settlements had to be exterminated. The remaining animals in the surrounding regions were vaccinated. At the moment, meat and milk are not sold to the public or to businesses until the foot and mouth disease virus in Bashkiria is completely destroyed.
As you can see, foot and mouth disease is a fairly dangerous infection of a viral nature that can cause significant losses to livestock farms. However, subject to compliance with established instructions and personal hygiene, the disease does not pose a danger to a person. If the infection still manages to hit the body, the predictions for a full recovery here are positive.