US of mammary glands that shows? Malignant tumors, cyst, mastopathy
One of the most accessible methods of examining the breast is ultrasound. With it, you can diagnose the causes of various abnormalities, evaluate pathological changes, or simply make sure that everything is in order.
Purpose of the study
To see the structure of the tissues, to check whether any cysts or tumors have appeared in the chest, allows ultrasound of the mammary glands. What this study shows and how often it needs to be done, any mammologist can tell.
Under the control of this procedure, you can take a puncture from the identified dubious lesions in the chest. In addition, this study allows you to clarify the diagnosis, established during the mammography. Ultrasound is absolutely safe and painless procedure, which has no contraindications. It is recommended to do it annually to all women, regardless of whether they have complaints. Even a beginning breast cancer can be seen on ultrasound.
For preventive purposes this examination is recommended to all. But there are a number of situations in which occurrence it is better not to hesitate on a visit to the hospital. Thus, ultrasound is necessary when:
- changes in breast size and shape;
- the appearance of discharge from the nipples, their coarsening and soreness;
- chest discomfort not associated with the menstrual cycle;
- inflammation and trauma;
- skin changes on the chest;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- planning of pregnancy, breast-feeding;
- installation of silicone implants to control their location and condition;
- diagnosis of neoplasms, cysts and other seals.
Also, in the treatment of changes in the breast, regular ultrasound monitoring is necessary.
Features of the procedure
Special training does not require ultrasound of the mammary glands. What this procedure shows, it is best to understand the first half of the cycle, after the end of menstruation. After all, the period between the 5th and 12th days is the preferred period for conducting this type of examination. On certain days, active growth of secretory cells of the breast is possible, therefore the results may be unreliable.
Ultrasound is considered one of the most accurate methods, but it is important that the conditions of this procedure are met. Using the ultrasound machine, one can study the morphological structure of the breast tissue. Its accessible location makes it possible to notice even minor changes.
You can carry out this examination without restrictions to pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Possible results of
Before going to the study, many want to know what can be detected with ultrasound of the mammary glands. The interpretation of the results allows us to establish such diagnoses:
- mastitis( inflammatory process in the mammary gland);
- mastopathy( its shape is also determined: cystic, cystic fibrous, fibrous, diffuse, diffusive-nodular, nodal);
- benign changes that appear in the menopause;
- cystic formations;
- malignant tumors;
- abscesses( inflammatory foci in tissues).
Specialists in the field of ultrasound research know how normal tissues should look like and how they change in certain pathologies.
Diagnosis: cyst, cancer, mastopathy
Normally, a healthy breast consists of fatty, glandular tissue and milky ducts. It is their condition that is evaluated when carrying out ultrasound of the mammary glands. Cysts, for example, look like anechogenic formations. But also abscesses( inflammatory foci in which pus accumulated) and galactocele( cavities filled with milk in lactating women), and malignant neoplasms are also visualized.
The period of the research is also important. For example, during lactemia and pregnancy in the breast, the glandular structure will predominate. But during the onset of menopause, it will be replaced by a connective tissue and fat.
Of course, only a doctor can evaluate the results of ultrasound of the mammary glands. So, for example, the skin looks like an echogenic uniform strip. The term "echogenicity" refers to what is seen for ultrasound. Fat lobules are low echo, and areas with high density( bones and areas responsible for milk production) are hyperechoic.
Cancer, for example, can look like an education with reduced echogenicity, irregular shape and fuzzy contours. The structure of malignant formations, as a rule, is not homogeneous. But fibroadenoma, on the contrary, will have clear contours, the correct form, a homogeneous structure.
Diffuse cystic mastopathy is described as benign changes in the duct system. Fibro-cystic changes are characterized by the degeneration of connective tissue elements. A change in glands with visible edema indicates mastitis.
survey Usually, the ultrasound of the mammary glands takes about 20 minutes. This time is enough for the examination of the chest from all sides. But you will not be able to evaluate the results of the survey yourself. For this purpose it is not enough to know how the ultrasound of the mammary glands is performed. What the research shows and how to interpret the results, only an experienced specialist can understand.
For the procedure, a woman must undress to the waist and lie down on the couch. At the same time, the hands are put behind the head. A special gel is applied to the breast, which facilitates sliding and provides a better connection of the sensor to the skin of the patient.
The doctor drives the sensor through the survey area so that ultrasonic waves penetrate into the tissue at different angles. If necessary, dopplerography can also be done. This is a special study in which blood flow is assessed.
Many do not want to go to the examination, because they do not know how much it costs to have a breast ultrasound. The price of this procedure does not differ from other similar surveys. It will depend on the clinic in which you do it. For example, in Moscow in a private clinic you will have to pay about 2.5 thousand rubles.
Consultation of the mammologist and interpretation of the results of
When performing ultrasound, the mammary glands are looked not only at anehogennye structures. Normally, there should be no areas in the breast tissue that differ in density. Also evaluate how well the tissues differentiate from each other. Look at their thickness. For example, glandular tissue should not normally be more than 14 mm, but in women over 40, an increase of up to 20 mm is permissible. Milky ducts should be well visualized on the monitor of the device when performing ultrasound of the mammary glands.
What this study shows, is to tell every patient her mammologist. During ultrasound, they can take pictures, which the radiologist should decipher. This is quite a difficult matter, which requires knowledge and experience.
The final diagnosis is made after the conclusion of a specialist, assessment of patient complaints and other types of examinations. In some situations, normal ultrasound is not enough, it is still necessary to perform a puncture of the revealed formations.
Mammography or US
Many patients want to find out which test is more reliable. They try to find out for themselves what is best - ultrasound or mammogram of the breast. But such a statement of the question is not entirely correct. After all, these are not interchangeable, but rather complementary surveys.
A mammogram allows you to determine the condition of breast tissue, but it is not possible to track changes in formations if they are close to the chest wall. Ultrasound also allows you to monitor dynamics. With this study, you can check and lymph nodes. But the mammogram is irreplaceable, if it is necessary to check the intra-flow formations. Therefore, there is no need to choose between these methods. If necessary, you need to make a comprehensive diagnosis, and not choose what is best - ultrasound or mammogram of the breast.