Infant mortality: causes, indicators, formula and coefficient
One of the indicators of the overall development of the country, a characteristic of its economic and cultural level is the mortality of the population, and especially the child. The calculation is based on the number of children who died within a certain period. There is also the term "infant mortality".This indicator most clearly reflects the demographic situation in the state. And also the level of medical care for the population.
What is infant mortality?
Infant mortality is differently called child. But this definition is not true. Infancy is considered from zero to one year. Therefore, in order to calculate the demographic level of development in the country, these indicators are taken. Also, infant mortality is a kind of indicator that reflects all types of assistance to children and mothers, the socio-economic situation in the country, and the material and sanitary conditions. Also in this indicator is the welfare of the population, the effectiveness of preventive work on epidemiological measures.
Health authorities, after analyzing the dynamics and causes of child mortality, can carry out a number of activities that will reduce the negative indicator. It also provides an opportunity to develop ways to combat the harmful habits of young people, to strengthen a healthy lifestyle. If the state and all its authorities struggle to reduce infant mortality, this will make it possible to increase the birth rate and the level of social and economic development.
Actual importance of the problem
To date, the demographic issue is very acute. Infant mortality in Russia every year is becoming an increasingly urgent topic for discussion. Although since 1985 this indicator in the Russian Federation has a tendency of steady decline, in some regions it is the opposite. For example, according to the data of 2015, the largest increase in infant mortality was registered in the Pskov, Kaluga, Smolensk and Orel regions, as well as in Karachaevo-Cherkessia and the Republic of Mari El.
The health system identifies a number of reasons why it is worth paying attention to the problem.
- In infancy, the child is the least protected. Parents take full responsibility for the care and provision of vital components to their child. If the country starts a crisis and an unstable economic and social situation, then the population suffers first. From this comes the fact that parents can not fully protect and provide their child with everything necessary.
- During the crisis in the state, reproductive health also declines. This can be influenced by a variety of factors, and the percentage of pathological births increases, which very often leads to infant mortality. Instability of the birth rate and mortality. This is especially evident if there is no adequate material support and assistance from the state.
All of the above is just a small part of the problem, which is very acute at the moment. In order to reduce the infant mortality rate, it is very important to identify the true causes of infant mortality.
Infant mortality: causes of
The causes of infant mortality mainly depend on the level of development of the country. How timely medical and material assistance is provided to the population is reflected in demography. If you take the underdeveloped countries, the mortality rate there is very high, because babies and mothers can not always be provided with timely assistance. In highly developed countries, this indicator is declining, as many babies have quality care.
Infant mortality has a number of reasons that affect its level, such as:
- Exogenous - mainly occur in the perinatal period. If the baby helps in time, the child survives.
- Infectious diseases.
- Diseases of the respiratory tract - sometimes a child can not provide timely help, and he dies.
- Congenital anomalies.
- Pathological conditions originating in the perinatal period. Seasonality of mortality
Physicians found that the death rate of children occurs by season. The level rises in the winter and summer months, decreases in the autumn and spring. This pattern was established in the last century. The causes of infant mortality in the summer are due to the increased risk of infectious diseases. And, as is known, in hot weather, bacteria and viruses multiply tens of times faster, hence the likelihood of infection increases. And, if the mother's immunity is reduced, and the child was born weak, you need to take this very seriously.
In winter, the level of colds increases, and often the mortality of infants is associated with it. Diseases of the respiratory tract are considered one of the main reasons for the development of infant mortality during this period. Most often, babies die from pneumonia, which is an exogenous cause. It can be noted the trend that summer mortality is weakening. But, unfortunately, the winter seasonality remains at a high level.
Infant mortality rate
Infant mortality is estimated from birth to one year. It is used to assess the health of the whole population in the country, as well as the quality of preventive care and medical care for women and children. Several medical forms have been adopted in which infant mortality should be recorded. These are the following documents:
- Medical certificate of death f.106 / y. Medical certificate of perinatal death f.106-2 / y.
These two documents are mandatory for the registration of infant death. To calculate the death rate, you need to know a certain formula, it looks like this:
- the number of children under the year who died in a given year is related to the number of children born in a given calendar year.
But these indicators are not accurate, as the number of children born often fluctuates.
WHO recommends a new form of calculation that more accurately displays infant mortality. Rats' formula recommends that the calculation be performed as follows:
- ICP =( number of dead infants under 1 year of age in a given year):( 2/3 born in the calendar year + 1/3 born alive in the previous year) x 1000.
ThisThe formula is more accurate, but in order for the indicator to be as true as possible, it is necessary to analyze the mortality of infants. Also, the infant mortality rate often fluctuates at different times.
Analysis of infant mortality
When recognizing the indicator and conducting a mortality analysis, it is necessary to know what it includes:
- The number of deceased children for the current calendar year.
- Number of deaths in each month during the calendar year.
- Number of dead children under one year.
- Causes of child mortality.
If you take into account the analysis data, you can set the level at which infant mortality will be visible. The formula can be different, it all depends on how reliable the results are. Also, one should not forget that the infant mortality rate is distributed unevenly. All this is included in the general analysis of this phenomenon. The highest mortality rate is observed in the first day after birth, this period is the main one. Further, the infant mortality rate is gradually decreasing.
coefficient There is a special coefficient that determines the mortality rate of children under one year. Previously, the infant mortality rate was the same for all ages. To date, it has gradations: infant - from 0 to 1 year, and children - from 1 year to 15 years. In general, the tendency was observed that the infant coefficient coincides in its magnitude with the mortality rate of people who have reached the age of fifty-five years.
Method of calculating the coefficient is significantly different from all other methods. All this is due to the fact that the infant mortality rate is constantly changing. Also, it can be abrupt changes throughout the year, and it is very difficult sometimes to calculate the correct value. Therefore, calculations are much simpler: the number of dead children is taken as a basis at a certain period and correlated with the number of children born. There are several methods of calculating the coefficient, which include the data characteristic and the accuracy of the calculation.
To make it easier to calculate infant mortality rates, use a special demographic grid. It visually shows all the data for a certain period of time. Also, a demographic grid is needed to make it easier to relate dead infants to the living.
It is a system of squares. Lines that are horizontally are years of age. Vertical lines are calendar years. The number of children born in a given calendar year is indicated by a certain number on the grid. Also on the diagonal are lines that carry certain information. These are the lines of life, the date and year of birth are indicated on them. If death occurs, the line ends with a dot.
There are also special formulas in which you can calculate the mortality of babies by the number and date of birth.
Mortality rate is the main indicator of nation's health and development of the state. And one of the factors of analysis is the analysis of mortality up to a year. And also the reasons why children are dying. Also, it should not be forgotten that the development of diseases and mortality directly depends on the work of health authorities and their effective functioning.
Infant mortality, whose decline is due to the level of socio-economic development, should be low. And for this it is necessary to apply methods of struggle against it and to involve all spheres of vital activity of both the population and the state. The main steps to reduce mortality should be:
- Support and strengthening of the preventive link in health protection.
- Social and preventive measures aimed at raising the living standards of the population, preserving the gene pool, protecting the environment.
- Health interventions that will help identify and prevent various diseases.
- Rehabilitation centers.
- Primary prevention, aimed at a healthy lifestyle.