Stigma is what? Stigmatization in psychiatry
Stigmatization is in psychology putting on the patient a hallmark "psychophobic".For many centuries people with mental disorders were subjected to isolation, persecution, destruction. Fear of being in such a situation today remained at the genetic level. Stigma is now a very important issue in the field of mental illness.
Every fourth or fifth inhabitant of the planet suffers from mental disorders. And every second person has a chance to get sick with these ailments. Depression is second only to cardiovascular disease. By 2002, depressive states can lead the list of diseases. Reason is the most precious thing a person can lose, so you need to reconsider your views on mentally ill people.
Causes of stigmatization
- Negative view of mental illness. Such patients are credited with aggressiveness, imbalance, unpredictability, danger, ability to commit a crime.
- Belief in myths and following negative cultural traditions. Violation of the psyche is perceived as a punishment from above.
- Insufficient public awareness of the characteristics of mental disorders.
- Negative reporting on such patients and their families in the media.
- There is a stereotype that people with a sick psyche are weak, unable to cope with their desires and moods.
- Fear of patients at the subconscious level, reinforced by stereotypes and traditions.
- Forced treatment in Soviet times and errors in the diagnosis. Obsolete methods of treatment and medicines.
- Lack of decent conditions in psychiatric hospitals.
- Poor clinic funding, lack of public and government support.
Stigmatization of mental patients is a social problem
Stigmatization in psychiatry is the separation of a person from other people due to the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis. This phenomenon can be traced in relation to doctors to their patients. Very often self-stigmatization of patients occurs. All this leads to discrimination: these individuals are beginning to be discriminated against, deprive them of their rights and help. Stigmatization of mental patients is a very serious problem. Such people find it difficult to get a job, they do not want to be accepted into these or those social groups, there are difficulties with getting married.
Stigmatization of mental illnesses is an obstacle to the normal socio-psychological functioning of a person. This is a constant negative situation that occurs in different areas of the patient's life, imposing on him the role of an outcast. In psychology, only a diagnosis is being made, but little attention has been paid to combating such a state.
How does it manifest?
Stigmatization can occur from family members, neighbors, medical personnel, others. Professionals can disrespectfully, formally, with demonstrative condescension treat patients, refer to the patient for "you", regardless of age. Close to such a person begins to over control.
There are three stages of self-stigmatization in the family:
- First, everyone tries to hide the fact of a relative's illness by limiting the social contacts of the sufferer.
- If a patient begins to behave unusually, family members can not hide information about his problem. There comes a critical moment for adaptation at home.
- The final stage is the final isolation of the whole family, opposing oneself to others, accepting the role of an "outcast".
Emotions experienced by a mentally unhealthy person
- Strong sense of fear. It seems to the patient that he does not have enough information about what is happening to him.
- An irresistible sense of shame. The patient feels not like everyone else.
- Helplessness. All that was previously given to him easily, now it is difficult: you have to strain memory, absent-mindedness, reaction slows down.
- . Relax and despair. Because of all this, people with mental disorders themselves leave from communication, outstripping society. Patients begin to avoid doctors, do not know who to trust, where to seek help.
Degrees of the surrounding ratio
- The society is condescending to people who express absurd and delusional ideas.
- Much stigmatization is shown to family members of a mentally unhealthy person.
- On the next step are individuals with non-standard behavior, speech, appearance.
- Stigma intensifies to socially isolated patients.
- Society shuns people who have been treated in a psychiatric hospital.
Mental diseases and reaction to them
- Epilepsy. Patients with this disease are friendly, sympathetic and understanding.
- Depression and neurosis. To such ailments, society does not have a serious enough attitude. Many underestimate the present state of depressed people and do not consider them sick.
- Dementia. It is tolerant and condescending.
- Schizophrenia. The majority of this disease is negative.
- Senile dementia. Older people are more often respected, but they limit their actions.
No one is immune to the mental disorder
Another thing worth recalling is that stigmatization is labeling "abnormal", "rabid".But not much is needed to get a mental breakdown. Many of the school years remember the story of Chekhov "Chamber number 6", and recently the director Karen Shakhnazarov shot a film on this work. It is worth remembering MF Dostoevsky, who suffered from schizophrenia, and his stories: "Notes of a Madman", "Notes from a Madhouse."Many have heard of the Kandinsky syndrome, which a well-known psychiatrist was able to describe after he himself became ill with this ailment. Unfortunately, today stigmatization in psychiatry is often observed. All because society is not sufficiently informed about these problems.
How to conduct the destigmatization of
- To carry out explanatory work through the mass media.
- Carefully prepare medical professionals. They should know and remember that their professional duty is the destigmatization of the mentally ill.
- Do not misrepresent information about this pathology.
- The emphasis should be on the personality of the patient, not on the disease itself. The society should know that a mentally ill person also has feelings, needs, a complex of ethical and moral norms.
- Do not allow jargon elements such as "glitch", "madhouse", "psychiatric hospital" when talking to patients.
- Specialists should not disclose information that violates the confidentiality of information about a particular patient.
- The most modern way of informing today is the Internet.
It should be remembered that stigmatization is a stigma. Therefore, it is necessary to do everything possible to make people with such a diagnosis feel comfortable in society.