Viral pneumonia in a child: symptoms, treatment and prevention
Viral pneumonia in a child is a complication arising from the soil of viral-respiratory diseases. Basically, the cause of this disease are untimely or incorrect treatment of colds, bronchitis, angina, influenza.
Description of the disease
Viral pneumonia is an acute inflammatory disease caused by viruses and affecting the lower respiratory tract. This kind of pneumonia is considered a typical childhood disease.
Parents of children are very cautious about this ailment. They consider him to be one of the most insidious, and they do it for good reason. Not always adults can quickly recognize and distinguish the symptoms of inflammation from another kind of viral disease. Current medicine allows you to quickly and effectively conduct treatment. An important factor is the timely access to the doctor and diagnosis of the disease.
How to recognize the signs of viral pneumonia in children on time? How to treat and how to prevent this disease? This will be discussed in more detail in the article.
Why does the disease occur? Causes of viral pneumonia in children
Children with reduced immunity are at greater risk of contracting viral pneumonia. The weaker the immune system, the more likely that a neglected cold or flu will develop into a more serious disease.
Viral pneumonia in a child is divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary arises from direct infection with pathogenic viruses, microbes. Secondary pneumonia is a disease that arose against the background of a previous illness. At the first symptoms of ARI, acute respiratory viral infection, angina or bronchitis, you should immediately contact a pediatrician who will prescribe the correct treatment.
A number of diseases in children increase the risk of pneumonia. Such pathologies include:
- iron deficiency in the body, iron deficiency anemia;
- diseases of the central nervous system;
- heart disease;
- pathology of the liver and kidney;
- weakened immunity.
Signs of the disease in small children up to the year
How to recognize the symptoms of viral pneumonia in children? Attentive parents will not miss the changes in the state of the baby. It is important at the same time immediately consult a doctor, without wasting time on self-medication and without aggravating the condition of a small patient.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia in children vary with age.
In young children under one year, the following symptoms may be present:
- Elevated temperature. The temperature reaches 39-40 degrees. Attempts to reduce it do not give a result or it decreases for a short time.
- Refusal to eat, loss of appetite. Children breastfeeding abandon their breasts or eat very little, more so for calming.
- Behavior change. The child can become overly excited, moody. Perhaps another manifestation - drowsiness, lethargy, uncharacteristic calm for the baby.
- Shortness of breath - frequent intermittent breathing. In this case, the skin tension in the ribs is observed in children.
- Blue skin between the lips and nose - cyanosis. Especially this sign becomes noticeable when sneezing, coughing or crying.
Young children are not characterized by the "adult" symptomatology of the disease. In the early days of the disease, wheezing is not heard in the chest, there is no coughing. The latter can manifest only on the fifth day of the disease. Therefore, diagnosing the disease in young children is difficult.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia in children of school age are manifested in the same way as adults. Often, these symptoms are the same as in viral-respiratory diseases.
Children of school age, adolescents. How does this disease manifest in them?
These children may have the following symptoms:Nasal obstruction, runny nose.
In some cases, pain in the hypochondrium is observed.
The incubation period of viral pneumonia in children can last from two to three days to a week. If the disease is caused by the influenza virus, then this period lasts no more than three days. If the first signs of the disease showed up, it means that the incubation period has passed and it is necessary to start active treatment.
Diagnosis of the disease. What needs to be done to determine this disease?
At the first manifestations of such symptoms, parents should show the child to the doctor. The pediatrician, with the help of listening, will hear signs of pneumonia: wheezing and noise typical for this disease.
In case of viral pneumonia, the child needs to have a radiograph. Without pictures, the doctor will be difficult to diagnose. It is better if the picture is taken from the front and side. This will clearly show the area of lung damage and the degree of development of the disease.
For an accurate diagnosis, the cause of the disease should be identified. To determine the pathogen, bacteriological tests of blood and sputum are necessary. Getting full information about the disease will allow the doctor to choose the correct and effective treatment tactics.
Treatment of a disease in children. How is it conducted and in what conditions?
Treatment of viral pneumonia in children can be performed at home or in a hospital. Depending on:
- of the patient's condition;
- type of disease( with acute pneumonia treatment is performed in a hospital);
- care for a sick child, who may( or can not) provide parents,
- the presence of smokers in the environment of the child.
For children under one year of age, pneumonia can be a serious threat to life. Therefore, treatment should be carried out in a hospital under the supervision of specialists.
For older children, preschool age, the decisive factor in choosing a place will be the state of the immune system and the presence of chronic diseases. The doctor can offer to conduct treatment in the hospital.
In complex cases, it will also be more effective and safer to conduct therapy in a hospital.
In other cases, treatment can be carried out at home.
What is used to treat an illness?
The appointment of antibiotics for viral pneumonia in children is a necessary measure. Despite the fact that these drugs negatively affect the gastrointestinal tract and suppress the immune system, without them there is no chance of recovery. Antibiotics are prescribed only by a doctor. If within two days( with acute disease - 24 hours) there is no positive result from taking medications, the doctor changes them.
In parallel with antibiotics, therapy is designed to maintain the work of the stomach and intestines. A child for this period will need to provide an easy, but healthy and high-calorie diet.
Treatment of viral pneumonia in children is aimed at eliminating foci of disease manifestation. With antibiotics, the doctor appoints:
- mucolytic drugs that facilitate the clearance of phlegm.
- antipyretic agents for improving the child's well-being.
Sufficient fluid production will help improve the baby's condition. Drinking should be abundant and warm: pure water( still), teas, juices, compotes. It is impossible to tolerate dehydration against the background of high temperature, in addition, an abundant drink will facilitate the withdrawal of phlegm.
Do not bring down the temperature if it has risen to a mark of 37 degrees. A rise in temperature indicates that the body is actively fighting microbes. Give the child antipyretics should be when the temperature becomes higher than 38. This advice does not apply to children under one year and those children who have previously had subfebrile convulsions.
Treatment with antibacterial drugs can last from seven to ten days. If there are complications, the therapy will be prolonged by the doctor for a longer period.
Prevention of disease in children
It is believed that this disease is a consequence of a weakened immune system. For this reason, the prevention of viral pneumonia in children involves carrying out measures to increase immunity. These include:
- proper nutrition;
- observance of the daily routine;
- vitamin complexes.
Parents should pay close attention to the daily routine. If it is not observed, the child goes to bed at different times, not on time and irregularly eats, his growing body is under severe stress.
The immunity of a child depends a lot on nutrition. Lack of vitamins and microelements reduces protective functions, and the body can not resist diseases. The baby's diet should contain fresh fruits and vegetables, a sufficient number of meat and dairy products. For children under one year, breastfeeding is very important.
It is necessary to dress the child in the weather, in no case should it be supercooled or overheated.
The room where the baby is located should be regularly ventilated and cleaned and kept clean. Little children are very sensitive to stuffiness and dry air.
Which ailments should be treated so that they do not cause pneumonia as a complication?
It is important to timely treat respiratory diseases that can provoke viral pneumonia. Such diseases include:
- sore throats;
During epidemics, parents should limit the child from contact with sick children, temporarily reduce visits to crowded places and monitor the personal hygiene of the child.
A small conclusion
Viral pneumonia in children is a disease that can lead to serious complications. Timely contact with a doctor will allow you to diagnose and prescribe effective treatment. Self-medication and the use of folk methods will only worsen the condition of the child, except for this, time will be missed.
A preventive measure is vaccination. But this measure is not mandatory and is carried out only by the decision of the parents.