What are bifidobacteria used for? The content of bifidobacteria is low: what to do? Infants have lowered bifidobacteria
The normal balance of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract is the key to good health and well-being. The bulk of the body's microflora is bifidobacteria. Is their content in the intestine low? This is not fatal in the short term, but there will be problems with well-being. If we neglect the principles of healthy and rational nutrition, then an unfavorable environment is created for the bifidobacteria in the intestine. Their number decreases. A vacant place is occupied by other species, and often they are not very friendly "get along" with the body.
Microorganisms enter the gastrointestinal tract with water and food. The whole microflora present in the intestinal tract of a person is divided into two groups. The first include microbes that provide metabolic processes. That is, they must necessarily be present in a certain amount. Such bacteria are called obligate: bifido- and lactobacilli, E. coli. Here also include microorganisms that do not play a significant role in the activity of vital systems( bacteroides, enterococci), but their presence does not harm a person.
What is the danger for the body of a low amount of bifidobacteria? Of the total number of microbes in the intestine, the obligate microflora should account for 95-97%.If the analysis shows that the amount of bifidobacteria is significantly reduced, it means that their place was taken by other species. And if it is not an E. coli or other friendly or neutral forms, then one should expect problems. Constipation, diarrhea, allergies, reducing the body's defenses - this is not a complete list of possible troubles.
Another group is microorganisms of facultative type. They are divided into two groups, depending on the "harmfulness".Pathogenic forms can cause harm only with one of their presence. The greatest danger is presented by pathogens of dysentery and typhus( salmonella and shigella).
Conditionally pathogenic microbes can cause harm to the body in the presence of certain factors that contribute to their excessive reproduction or associated with a weakening of the protective functions of the body. Among such flora are isolated Klebsiella and Clostridium, which may not bear harm in a small amount, and such, which in the body( especially children's) should not be( staphylococci, fungi Candida, proteus).
Despite the fact that the human body and microbes live in symbiosis, that is, they receive mutual benefit, this "friendly neighborhood" is possible only if the strict quantitative ratio of the obligate and facultative form of microflora is observed. Disturbance of balance, when bifidobacteria are lowered, usually leads to digestion disorders. If the problem is not solved, clinical manifestations of intestinal infections are possible.
These microorganisms were first isolated in 1899.More than 30 species of bifidobacteria are known today. These Gram-positive curved rod-shaped microbes have a size of up to 5 μm, and colon colon. Located on the walls of the intestine, they play the role of a shield and prevent contact with it of pathogenic microflora. The total number of these bacteria can normally reach 108-1011 per 1 g of feces.
As the dominant microflora in a healthy person, they provide the processes of protein and fat metabolism, participate in the regulation of mineral metabolism, the synthesis of vitamins B and K.
In addition to their basic duties, these microorganisms are active against pathogenic strains, producing specific organic acids of antimicrobial action. A reduced amount of bifidobacteria can cause enzymatic, metabolic and antitoxic dysfunction, as well as a violation of colonization resistance and an immune response to a pathogenic microflora. Bifidobacteria improve the fermentation of food, enhancing protein hydrolysis, participate in saponification of fats, fermentation of carbohydrates, resorption of cellulose. Their merit in the normal peristalsis of the intestine, and this is a timely and stable evacuation of digestive products.
The low content of bifidobacteria in feces is most often determined by the study of intestinal microflora in case of suspected dysbiosis. This analysis is not widely used in routine medical practice due to the length and complexity of its conduct on the basis of polyclinic departments.
To obtain accurate analysis results, it is necessary to ensure fast delivery of stool( no more than 3 hours) in a sterile container to the laboratory. The collected biomaterial( 10 g) is desirable to cool, but it is impossible to freeze. Enemas and preparations with barium can not be used. Reception of antibiotics should be stopped 12 hours before collection. Also, a few days before the analysis, stop using laxatives and rectal suppositories.
Usually it takes about a week to count the number of microbes. During this time, the contents of the container, sown on a nutrient medium under the conditions of a thermostat, germinate, and the expert counts colony of bacteria.
Decoding of results
Determine the amount and ratio of useful and hostile microorganisms. First of all, the graph is filled with a graph of pathogenic forms of microbes( salmonella, shigella) - they should not be at all. Further mandatory results of the amount of bifido-, lactobacillus and Escherichia coli are also calculated, and their ratio is calculated in the total number.
Depending on the age, gender and various factors, the doctor who directed the analysis gives an interpretation of the results. The main indicator is bifidobacteria. Reduced the content of these microorganisms in the presence of dysbiosis( dysbiosis).The diagnosis is made on the basis of comparison of normative indicators with actual ones. If necessary, corrections are made taking into account the specific features of the clinical manifestations of the disease and the presence of various predisposing factors.
These microorganisms are representatives of gram-positive anaerobic flora of the intestine. Together with bifidobacteria they provide normal digestion and protective functions. In the total mass of the microflora of the body, they account for up to 5%.The increase in the number of lactobacilli in the analyzes is not a serious imbalance. Often this happens with the predominance of sour-milk products in the diet. Much worse when in the analysis of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus are lowered.
When developing medicines containing live bacterial cultures( probiotics), scientists try to stick to the ratio. Normally, the balance between bifido- and lactoflora should be within 9: 1.Such a ratio, according to experts, will provide optimal conditions for the development of both cultures.
Lactobacilli in most cases do not show pathogenicity, but on the contrary, they participate in the metabolic processes necessary for the body. They produce lactic acid from lactose and other carbohydrates, which is a necessary condition for normal digestion and a barrier to pathogenic microflora. They also synthesize microelements, participate in the decomposition of indigestible plant foods. Unlike bifidobacteria, which colonize mainly the large intestine, lactobacilli is present in other parts of the digestive tract.
The ability of an organism to resist infections depends largely on the state of the intestinal microflora. Most of the immune cells are concentrated there. Genetic predisposition and antibodies acquired after vaccination or transferred diseases can not provide a sufficient level of body protection. It is the intestinal microflora that sets the tone for well-being. From this it follows that a lower content of bifidobacteria will negatively affect immunity.
This condition is particularly dangerous with a significant decrease in the amount of normoflora. There are lumens on the inner surface of the large intestine. Opens access to its cells. With adverse factors( damage, ulcers), microorganisms inhabiting the intestinal tract can spread beyond its limits. The result may be the entry into the circulatory system of pathogenic bacteria that can cause inflammation in other organs. The extreme degree of such pathology - sepsis - leads to a lethal outcome.
Researches of scientists more and more confirm a connection of imbalance of a microflora with development of a diabetes, anemia, an atherosclerosis, onkozabolevany and even adiposity. The main problem is bifidobacteria. Their content in the intestine is lower - this is a catalyst. Immediately there is a dysbacteriosis, the immune response of the body is late or weak. If there is no correction, the underlying disease develops. Against this background, secondary infection develops( frequent catarrhal diseases of a viral nature), accompanying visible problems( allergies, dermatitis), delay in growth and development, decrease in muscle mass and body weight.
This pathology occurs when not only bifidobacteria are lowered, but there is a tendency that the pathogenic microflora begins to predominate over normal. Such a dysbacteriosis is called true. It does not arise spontaneously.
The initial stage characterizing the presence of progressive dysbiosis can be a persistent increase in the number of ballast bacteria( E. coli with weak enzymatic activity, enterococci).They start to develop because the main culture disappears. In addition to infections in the intestine, the cause can be in frequent antibiotic methods without subsequent correction or incorrect( inefficient) nutrition.
Dysbacteriosis in newborns can be transient( temporary), when due to various factors( prematurity of infants, weakening of the body after difficult births) there is a violation of the normal cycle or development. After stabilization of the condition, as a rule, by the end of the second week, normoflora is restored.
Treatment of the dysbacteriosis
When setting such a diagnosis, the patient should be treated in two stages. Reduced bifidobacteria can be restored if the growth of a conditionally pathogenic microflora is suppressed. This can be done in several ways: antibiotics, intestinal antiseptics and immunopreparations containing bacteriophages capable of selectively absorbing and neutralizing pathogenic microbes inside themselves.
For the colonization of the bifido- and lactobacilli in the intestine, probiotics are usually used - preparations containing a living culture of beneficial microorganisms. Treatment should be started as soon as possible. Delay with correcting the balance of microflora can be expensive for the body: constipation, diarrhea, anemia, gastritis, arthritis, duodenitis, malignant neoplasms of the intestine.
To maximize your safety, it is important to eliminate stress, vitamin deficiencies, alcohol, overeating, when normal fermentation of incoming food is disrupted. We should not forget about the influence of age, seasonal and climatic factors.
Bifidobacteria decreased in a child
What if the analysis of feces for dysbiosis gave disappointing results? The first thing that arises is to revise the diet and the quality of the food. Most of the problems are related to this. If there are complicating factors - antibiotics, radiation therapy, consequences of the transferred illness, stress, fatigue - then, if possible, minimize their influence.
It is then necessary to introduce into the body bifidobacteria. Is the content lowered to 106 or less? This gives grounds to believe that against the background of dysbiosis the conditionally pathogenic microflora has developed. The results of the analysis, as a rule, show which unwanted microorganisms should firstly be neutralized and dislodged from the intestine.
Along the way, it is necessary to correct the child's diet: a rigid schedule of food intake, exclusion of unwanted products( sweets, canned food, semi-finished products, smoked products).More natural products: vegetables, fruits, nuts, sour-milk products.
If infants have lowered bifidobacteria
In newborns, the main process of formation of intestinal microflora begins with the first portions of the colostrum of the mother. The baby appears sterile to the light. In the delivery room he comes into contact with foreign bacteria. On how quickly the baby can access the mother's breast, much depends. Ideally, it's minutes( up to an hour).A longer delay caused by different causes( heavy birth, cesarean section, weakened or premature baby) will inevitably affect the baby's health.
Mother's milk is an ideal source of bifido- and lactobacilli. Eliminating the negative factors, breastfeeding will quickly restore the necessary balance. Another thing is, when bifidobacteria are lowered in the baby, and he for one reason or another can not take mother's milk.
Because of unformed immunity, the dysbiosis that has arisen, caused at first sight by common factors( teething, grafting, hypothermia), can become uncompensated. You can not leave such a malfunction on your own, you need a comprehensive treatment based on the results of the analysis.
If a child can not receive mother's milk, the mixtures should be preferred, adapted not only for a specific age category, but also containing live cultures of beneficial bacteria. Such compounds are enriched with protective factors, they include prebiotics, which create conditions for the good survival of microflora in the intestines of infants.
In situations where the result of analysis shows decreased bifidobacteria, and there is a need to quickly increase their concentration in the intestine, drugs with live cultures of beneficial microbes are used. There are liquid bacterial concentrates in active form and dried freeze-dried or freeze-dried masses. The first begin to act immediately after ingestion. Another group is the microorganisms in the anabiosis, getting into the digestive tract, the activity manifests after a certain time( the passage of the large intestine).
Drugs useful microflora can contain one culture( monoprobiotics) or several different strains of bacteria( associated).In a separate group, synbiotics are singled out - complex preparations containing the basic culture and a set of biologically active substances that promote the fixation of bacteria in the body( probiotic + prebiotic).
Reduced bifidobacteria - not a sentence. What preparation to buy, to solve to parents after the advisory opinion of the expert. There are plenty to choose from: Linex, Lactiale, Bifidumbacterin, Acilact, Lactomon and other worthy representatives of biologically active food additives.