Enterobacter cloacae: norm and pathology
Many bacteria belong to a conditionally pathogenic flora. They can be located almost in all parts of the body, most often - in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the representatives of such microorganisms is Enterobacter cloacae. These bacteria live together with a person constantly, while doing nothing harm his condition. Under the influence of unfavorable factors, they begin to multiply intensively, as a result of which they become pathogenic. Enterobacteria are common everywhere, they can live in a free state( in rivers, sewage, on the surface of plants), and inside the human body and animals. Enterobacter cloacae refers to saprophytes living on the mucosa of the small and large intestine, in the distal parts of the digestive tract.
What are enterobacteria?
Enterobacteria belong to Gram-negative bacilli that are not capable of forming spores. They are facultative anaerobes, that is, they are able to survive without oxygen. Enterobacteria are resistant to most disinfectants, as well as to many antibacterial drugs. These microorganisms are divided into many genera, some of which cause serious diseases. Enterobacter cloacae do not belong to the pathogenic flora, so in the normal state of the body they do not present any harm. These bacteria acquire pathogenicity with a strong weakening of the body, so they are often called opportunistic infections. You can get infected only from a person or an animal, fecal-oral or alimentary( when eating infected meat, milk, eggs).In a hospital, the transfer of enterobacteria is also carried out through the hands of medical personnel. This type of microorganism often causes nosocomial infections.
Enterobacter cloacae: symptoms of infection
Enterobacteria most often cause digestive tract disorders, but can parasitize in other departments. Due to the fact that the urogenital organs in women are in close proximity to the intestine, inflammatory processes are often observed there, caused by the microflora of the latter. With a strong weakness of the immune system, enterobacteria can multiply intensively in other parts of the body, for example, in throat. Due to this, they enter the respiratory tract and become one of the causative agents of nosocomial pneumonia - a severe condition that is difficult to treat. When enterobacteria enter the bloodstream, septicemia develops, a disease that results in parasitism in all organs and systems. The most common symptoms of infection are abdominal pain, stool disorders, nausea, itching and burning in the genital area( most often in women), fever to subfebrile numbers. In newborns and seriously ill patients, enterobacteria can cause meningitis, pyelonephritis, septicemia.
Diagnosis of diseases caused by enterobacteria
It is possible to understand that the patient has an enterobacter infection, according to a number of diagnostic criteria. First, such patients are most often severely weakened, take antibiotics for a long time, or spend a long time on hospitalization in a hospital. Considering these factors, as well as characteristic symptomatology, special methods of research are carried out. When isolating Enterobacter cloacae in the feces, it is necessary to take into account that the intestine is the habitat of these microorganisms, therefore their insignificant number does not indicate infection. The norm is 10 * 5, pathological conditions caused by enterobacteria are observed with an increase in this indicator. Increase in the level of Enterobacter cloacae in the urine is most common in cystitis, vaginitis, vulvitis.
Treatment of enterobacter infections
Due to the fact that enterobacteria cause disease only in weakened patients, first of all it is necessary to increase immunity, avoid unfavorable factors, treat the underlying pathology. In addition, an increase in the level of Enterobacter cloacae can occur with prolonged use of antibiotics. In this case, it is necessary to cancel therapy. If it is impossible, it is recommended that you use drugs that protect against intestinal dysbiosis. These include drugs containing lacto- and bifidobacteria. Also do not forget about symptomatic therapy.