Heart hump: causes, diagnosis, treatment
At one time, such a pathology as a heart hump, was quite common. Despite the fact that in the modern world, such cases are rare, many people are interested in additional information about the mechanism and the causes of pathology.
What is a heart hump?
In fact, 300-400 years ago, such a violation hardly anyone would have surprised. The heart hump is essentially a deformation of the chest, in which the sternum and ribs protrude forward, and the scapula and clavicle are raised.
Fortunately, modern medicine offers new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment, and therefore such chest deformities are extremely rare( mainly in places with undeveloped / inaccessible medicine or people who for one reason or another do not accept medical care).
How is the hump formed?
Heart hump is the result of congenital or acquired in the early childhood heart defects. The fact is that some diseases cause hypertrophy of the ventricles of the heart. Because of the increase in the mass of the myocardium, the push during the contraction becomes much stronger, which, in fact, causes the sternum to deform.
It is worth noting that a real hump in the chest area can be formed only in early childhood. During this period, the ribs and sternum have not yet passed the period of ossification and consist mainly of elastic cartilaginous tissues, which are much more easily amenable to various physical changes and deformations. In adult patients, the chest in hypertrophic heart disease remains practically unchanged.
Convexity in the sternum can be localized in the center, shifted to the left or right depending on changes in the heart muscle. In any case, having noticed such education at the child, it is necessary to address urgently to the doctor.
The main causes of chest deformation
As mentioned, the heart hump testifies to a severe, usually congenital heart disease. This body during embryonic development, as is known, is formed from the aortic trunk. Under the influence of various factors, formation can be disturbed. For example, the interatrial and interventricular septa of the heart is often deformed. Among the common vices of this organ include the open Botallov channel.
Not all cases manage to determine the exact cause of heart disease, especially when it comes to their congenital forms. There are only a few risk factors. For example, intoxication of the mother's body with alcohol, nicotine and narcotic substances during pregnancy is considered dangerous for the fetus. Anomalies can also develop with chronic poisoning of the mother with aggressive chemicals( observed, for example, when working in hazardous production).
To the reasons carry infectious diseases transferred during carrying out of the child, including herpes, a rubella. The lack of proteins and vitamins in the diet of a future mother can lead to an incorrect formation of muscle tissue. In fact, all the risk factors can not be calculated.
What does the diagnostic process look like?
It's no secret that in most cases, the deformation of the chest is associated with injuries or diseases of the musculoskeletal system. That is why it is important to conduct a thorough diagnosis in order to determine the presence of a real heart hump and to establish the cause of its appearance.
If you examine the listening points of the heart, you can see that the apical impulse in the area of the sixth or seventh hypochondrium is strengthened. Often diseases of the cardiovascular system are accompanied by swelling of the veins of the neck and increased pulsation in the vessels, which can be easily felt through the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It is worth paying attention to the presence of cyanosis - the skin of the face and lips of the child acquires a characteristic cyanotic shade.
More useful information is provided by palpation of the heart. Fingers can be felt "trembling" in the chest area. In addition, a specialist may notice a strong push during systole, as a result of which the chest rises. Palpation of the heart gives the doctor an excuse to suspect the presence of a heart defect in a small patient. Further important diagnostic measures are taken, including chest and spine X-ray, ultrasound examination of blood vessels and heart. Blood tests and rheumatic tests are also conducted.
Is it possible to manifest pathology in adulthood?
As mentioned, the heart hump, as a rule, manifests itself in childhood. Nevertheless, some diseases of the cardiovascular system can cause deformation of the chest, even in adults.
For example, some forms of exudative pericarditis are accompanied by protrusion of intercostal spaces. Symptoms of this disease look a little different. For example, in order to examine the listening points of the heart, the patient must be seated. It can be seen that the apical impulse is significantly weakened. The heart sounds are deaf, and when you look at it you can hear the sounds of friction of the pericardium.
Another cause of chest changes is aortic aneurysm. As a rule, such an ailment develops in adulthood. Sometimes an aneurysm can be seen even with a visual examination - it has a rounded shape, the bone tissue above it atrophies, and the skin acquires a reddish hue. This disease is an indication for surgical intervention.
What methods of treatment does modern medicine offer?
Naturally, to begin with, the cardiologist conducts a complete examination, examines the child's heart area, does the necessary tests, etc. The formation of the hump testifies to the presence of serious heart diseases, which in itself is an indication for an operative intervention.
If in time to conduct surgical treatment, the deformation of the chest can still be corrected, then the bones will develop according to the standard scenario. In the event that the hump can not be eliminated by the natural way, a decision is made about the plastic restoration of the normal forms of the sternum and ribs.