What is rhinitis? Symptoms and Treatment
Rhinitis is an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa. The medicine divides rhinitis into acute and long-lasting chronic, which alternates with periods of exacerbation and calm of the disease.
Causes of rhinitis
In the cold season, often after hypothermia, colds develop, such as SARS, influenza, etc. Such diseases are often accompanied by rhinitis. Symptoms of it in the beginning of the disease come to the fore.
Runny nose may also occur with prolonged exposure to any chemical stimuli. Almost always in the pathological process, both nasal passages are involved.
Acute rhinitis, symptoms of the disease
Usually such a runny nose, as already mentioned above, appears against a background of hypothermia. The patient complains of a slight malaise, there may be a perspiration in the throat and nose, a burning sensation and an itch. Nasal passages are often incorporated, the nasal mucosa is hyperemic and edematous. A little later, the mucous discharge appears, and with aggravation of the inflammation it can become mucopurulent. The inflammatory process is almost always involved in the nasopharynx, sometimes the sinuses of the nose. An untreated acute form of the disease can pass into chronic rhinitis. Symptoms of the disease with adequate treatment go through about seven to ten days.
In the treatment of rhinitis, vasoconstrictive drugs are used, which are digested with nasal congestion several times a day. These drugs are prescribed for a period of three to five days.
Nasal passages should be rinsed well with saline solutions. This procedure not only destroys pathogenic bacteria, but also moisturizes the mucous membrane of the nose. Irrigation with salt water can be carried out every hour until symptoms begin to disappear.
Chronic rhinitis, symptoms of
Chroniciosis of the common cold occurs
- due to a long and protracted acute rhinitis,
- due to inadequate therapy,
- with long exposure to a variety of irritants,
- in the presence of chronic sinusitis or diseases of other body systems( endocrine,cardiovascular).
In chronic rhinitis, the patient's general condition does not change. The nose is often stuffed, nose breathing is difficult, the sense of smell is reduced. Due to oral breathing, the mucous membrane of the mouth is overdried. Nasal congestion during sleep depends on the position of the body: when lying on the right side, the right half of the nose is laid, on the left side - the left nasal passage. The constant use of vasoconstrictive drops causes temporary relief, but can lead to mucosal atrophy. If, after instillation of drugs, the mucosal edema does not subside, they speak of hypertrophic rhinitis.
Allergic or vasomotor rhinitis, symptoms of
The cause of such a cold is contact with an allergen. Allergens can be flower pollen, dust, chemicals, household chemicals and many others.etc.
Symptoms of the disease are the appearance of a sudden runny nose with abundant mucous discharge and nasal congestion. With allergy to plant pollen, seasonal dependence is characteristic. Reaction can occur and cold exposure or sharp smells. In this case, they speak of a neuro-reflex mechanism of rhinitis. Inflammatory changes on the nasal mucosa are not noted.
With the vasomotor mechanism of the common cold, the following therapeutic measures are taken: strengthening the body, hardening and symptomatic therapy. Allergic rhinitis needs the appointment of antihistamines, and sometimes hormonal drugs. It is important to stop contact with the allergen. A good therapeutic effect is observed when using physiotherapeutic methods of treatment: ultraviolet irradiation, ultrasound, cryotherapy.