Medicinal electrophoresis: indications and contraindications, methods, algorithm of carrying out, mechanism of action, advantages
Currently, various methods are used in the treatment of various diseases. If before medicine was based more on drug therapy, now physiotherapy procedures are often prescribed. They help to cope faster with the disease. It is necessary to know that physiotherapy includes many methods, with one of which we will get acquainted in more detail. Consider what is the drug electrophoresis, under what pathologies it is shown and whether it has contraindications.
The essence of the method of treatment
Electrophoresis refers to physiotherapy procedures. During the session, the patient's body is exposed to electrical impulses in order to obtain a persistent therapeutic effect.
Drug electrophoresis is also used to administer medications through the skin and mucous membranes. It can be said that this method is complex, since there is a simultaneous effect of current and drug. What kind of medication to choose for the procedure, what percentage and polarity of administration, is determined only by the attending physician in view of the patient's condition and the severity of the disease.
The essence of electrophoresis is that drugs enter the tissues in the form of charged particles through the intercellular spaces, the channels of the sweat and sebaceous glands. As a result of the effect of electric current, the effectiveness of the preparations increases substantially, as the sensitivity of tissues increases.
All medicines are introduced taking into account their polarity, if they are cations, then they are introduced from the anode, and the anions - from the cathode. Distilled water is considered to be the best solvent, but alcohol or "Dimexide" is used for poorly soluble compounds.
The mechanism of action of this procedure is that the drug in the form of ions enters the patient's body through the pores and ducts of the sebaceous and sweat glands. Cations and anions linger on the skin under the electrode, and then gradually penetrate into the blood and lymph. Because of this gradual intake, the effect of the medicine on the body is long, which is one of the advantages of this method of therapy.
Drug electrophoresis is performed using different devices, one of which is Potok. This device has been used in medicine for a long time, it is time-tested and reliable. It is possible to regulate the current during the procedure, as well as to set the time. At present, modern analogues of the device are produced that have digital indicators.
To obtain a therapeutic effect, it is not necessary to place electrodes on a diseased organ or to inject large doses of drugs. By means of physiotherapy, ions of calcium, magnesium, iodine are introduced to increase the reflex action on the affected tissue.
Methods for conducting electrophoresis
To increase the effectiveness of this procedure, the methods of electrophoresis of drug are constantly being developed and improved. Currently, the following are used:
- Prolonged galvanization. Apply an electric current of low strength, but the exposure time is long. The "Krona" battery is a source of current. The course of treatment procedures is usually 20-30 sessions. Electrophoresis calms well, has analgesic effect.
- Labile galvanizing. One electrode during the procedure is fixed motionless, and the second is in motion and moves at a speed of 3-5 cm per second over the surface of the skin. To exclude current oscillations, a stabilizing device is introduced into the apparatus. The procedure improves metabolism, improves blood circulation of organs and tissues and neuromuscular conduction.
- Interstitial electrophoresis. Carrying out the procedure of drug electrophoresis according to this technique is reduced to the introduction, through the cannula, of the drug or mixture of substances subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The medicine may be injected or dripped. To the focus of the lesion across the electrodes are applied to increase the concentration of the medical preparation. If the drug is injected, then the current is turned on simultaneously, and when the drug is injected, after injection.
In neurological practice, electrophoresis is used in many diseases of the nervous system. The following techniques are used:
1. Vacuum electrophoresis. A special EVAC-1 apparatus is used, which has a vacuum pump, cuvettes. During the procedure, the cuvettes are applied to the skin or mucous membrane, and the lining is impregnated with the drug. After the discharged pressure is created, the skin is raised and closely in contact with the drug. The duration of the procedure is only 5-10 minutes, on the course it is necessary to make such 5-10 depending on the condition of the patient and the severity of his disease. This method of electrophoresis allows you to introduce more medicine and much more deeply.
2. Microelectrophoresis. To perform the procedure, use a cotton insert into which the wick is impregnated, impregnated with the drug. An electrode is placed on top of it to create a contact between the metal tip and the cotton wool. The use of drug electrophoresis using this technique is often used in hypertension, sleep disorders, pathologies of the nervous system.
3. The electrophonophoresis is a combination of ultrasound and electrophoresis. There is a special device, which consists of an alternating current source that exerts a therapeutic effect, a transducer that converts ultrasound, a source of stabilized current, an electroadjustment and an electrode. During the procedure, the electrode is fixed to the skin, the electrical attachment is filled with the preparation, fixed to the ultrasonic sensor and connected to the other pole of the current source. The current strength is gradually increased, and then ultrasound is switched on. Procedures are done daily, you can every other day, for 10-15 minutes.
Methods of electrophoresis drug are different, but what to use, the attending physician decides.
Methods of electrophoresis
In addition to various techniques, there are ways to use this procedure:
- .The essence is that a medicinal solution is placed in a special container with built-in electrodes and the part of the patient's body is immersed.
- Interstitial. Intravenous or oral administration of the drug, and electrodes are applied to the affected site.
- Cavity method is used for diseases of the rectum or vagina. Inside the medicine is introduced and the electrode is supplied, and the second electrode is attached to the outer part of the body.
If drug electrophoresis is prescribed, the algorithm of carrying out is important to know, but it must also be taken into account that various factors can influence the absorption of the drug:
- The site of the procedure.
- Age of the patient.
- Duration of electrophoresis. Dosage and concentration of medication.
- The strength of electric current.
- Ion charge and their size. Individual characteristics of the patient.
All this must be considered and adjusted parameters in each case individually.
What are the advantages of electrophoresis
There are many physiotherapeutic procedures, and each has its pros and cons. The advantages of drug electrophoresis are as follows:
- A small amount of the drug is administered during the procedure.
- The substances accumulate, which means that the procedure has a prolonged effect.
- Drugs are administered in the most accessible form, in the form of ions.
- A high local concentration is created without saturation of blood and lymph.
- It is possible to inject medicinal substances into the pathology sites, which is especially important when microcirculation is disturbed.
- The procedure is absolutely painless.
- Very rarely seen side effects.
- Drugs do not enter the digestive tract, and therefore, do not collapse.
- The medicinal substance is injected through holistic integument, therefore special sterilization is not required.
Thus, it can be said that this method of physiotherapy is not only effective, but also safe. But before doing the drug electrophoresis, indications and contraindications should be studied.
In what cases are electrophoresis administered
This physiotherapy procedure is often prescribed in the complex treatment of many neurological, gynecological, and surgical diseases. It does not do without electrophoresis pediatrics and dentistry. Here is a list of some pathologies that are successfully treated with this procedure:
- Diseases of the respiratory system, beginning with the usual bronchitis and ending with bronchial asthma and pneumonia. Diseases of the ear, throat and nose.
- Perfectly treatable gastrointestinal diseases, for example gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer.
- Electrophoresis is used in complex therapy of cardiovascular pathologies. This includes hypertension, hypotension, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, etc.
- Diseases of the genitourinary system.
- The pathologies of the nervous system are practically not without this method of treatment. Migraines, neuroses, radiculitis, intervertebral hernia, etc. are well treated.
- The musculoskeletal system also responds well to electrophoresis. This procedure is often prescribed after fractures, with osteochondrosis, arthrosis, arthritis.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Skin diseases.
- In the field of dentistry is also not uncommon electrophoresis, for example, with stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontitis.
As can be seen from the list, the drug electrophoresis readings are quite extensive.
Contraindications to the procedure
There is no such treatment or procedure that would be absolutely allowed to everyone. We have already examined what indications are available for electrophoresis. And there are contraindications to this method of therapy. To that it is possible to carry:
- Benign and malignant neoplasms in any place of an organism.
- The presence of heart failure.
- The presence of a pacemaker.
- Any inflammatory process in the body in the stage of exacerbation.
- High body temperature.
- Severe form of bronchial asthma.
- Blood clotting disorders.
- Skin diseases, for example eczema or dermatitis.
- Disturbance of sensitivity of skin.
- Presence of mechanical damages in the place of application of medical pads.
- Intolerance of electric current.
- Allergy to medicinal product.
- If electrodes are to be applied to the area of the uterus and ovaries, menstruation is a contraindication.
In any case, even if you think that you do not have any contraindications to the procedure, carrying out of drug electrophoresis is possible only after consulting a doctor. All the nuances should be taken into account.
Therapeutic effect of electrophoresis
If medication electrophoresis is prescribed, the technique of carrying out, in principle, any one will be of great benefit, since the procedure produces the following therapeutic effect:
- Reduces the intensity of inflammatory processes.
- Has anti-edematous effect.
- Relieves pain.
- Eliminates spasm of muscle fibers.
- Effective in the nervous system.
- Accelerates tissue regeneration.
- Activates the human immune system.
At the time of the procedure, the effect also depends on the dominant electrode. If it is a cathode, then:
- There is an expansion of the blood and lymph vessels.
- The metabolism is normalized.
- The work of the endocrine glands is stabilized.
- The production of biologically active substances is stimulated.
Positive electrode - anode - has the following effects:
- Promotes the removal of excess fluid from the body.
- Removes inflammation.
In the benefit of such a procedure, there is no doubt, but the main thing is that all contraindications should be taken into account, otherwise this can lead to undesirable consequences.
Side Effects of Electrophoresis
If the procedure is prescribed by a doctor taking into account the condition of the patient and his disease, then drug electrophoresis undesirable effects are rare. Most often, it is an allergic reaction to a medicine, which can be manifested by burning, redness, rash and swelling. After the end of the procedure, all symptoms quickly disappear.
Some patients, after several sessions, note an increase in soreness, a slight increase in body temperature. Usually by the end of the course of therapy all sensations pass without medical intervention.
Steps for conducting the procedure
If a procedure for drug electrophoresis is prescribed, the algorithm should be as follows:
- A nurse or physician must check the condition of the device before the procedure.
- Look in the doctor's appointment card of the doctor.
- Explain in detail, especially if a person does electrophoresis for the first time, what sensations can be.
- Help the patient to take a comfortable position.
- Make sure the integrity of the skin in the place of application of the gasket.
- Prepare the pads corresponding to the place of application, soak them in warm water.
- Attach them to the patient's body.
- A lead plate is superimposed on top, which will be connected by wire to the unit.
- Calculate the current for the procedure.
- Check that the current intensity regulator is in the extreme left position.
- Connect the device to the mains.
- Switch the shunt to mark "5" if the patient is a child or a procedure is done on the head, and "50" for adult patients and other body parts.
- Gradually increase the current to the required value.
- If the patient carries the procedure well, then it can be covered, but warn that, in case of any unpleasant sensations, he must inform the nurse.
- Notify the time of electrophoresis.
- After the end of the current regulator put in position "0".
- Disconnect the appliance from the mains.
- Remove electrodes from the patient's body and examine the skin for redness and irritation.
- Patient should be reminded when he should come for the following procedure.
This execution algorithm must be known to any nurse.
Any physiotherapeutic procedures will be of great help in complex therapy, but only when they are prescribed taking into account the pathology and individual characteristics of the patient, and also performed qualitatively, by a competent specialist. Do not neglect electrophoresis, this procedure will help to cope with the disease more quickly.