Levonorgestrel: what kind of hormone is it, and why does it respond in the body?
Many people are interested in the question: levonorgestrel - what kind of hormone is it? It is a synthetic progestogen that converts the endometrium, minimizes ovulation, preventing the fertilization of the prepared egg. In addition, with its help receptors of the mucous membranes receive a reduced sensitivity. In the article we will consider a preparation containing the named hormone.
The drug "Levonorgestrel" is an estrogen that prevents the activation of spermatozoa due to the increase in the viscous properties of mucus. The drug inside the uterus locally affects the fallopian tubes, endometrium, the consistency of mucus, resulting in follicle-stimulating hormone decreases its activity.
When ingested, the drug is actively absorbed into the digestive tract, the biopoies are up to 100%.In the blood, its components are concentrated as much as possible with 75 ml once every 60 - 130 minutes. The hormone in question interacts with plasma and globulin binding agents by about 50%.
Metabolism is liver-oriented, with pharmacologically passive metabolites being formed. The main isoenzyme of this hormone is CYP3A4.The half-life can last up to 30 hours.
In response to the question "Levonorgestrel - what is this hormone?"should be guided by the instruction to the drug of the same name and the recommendations of the treating doctor. The difference in the total value is about 1.0 ml / min / kg( from the plasma).The hormone is eliminated mainly through the ureter, a minor part is removed from the feces.
With systemic therapy, the rate of entry into the uterus is no more than 20 μg daily, and after five years it drops to 11. On average, the rate of hormone release varies around 14 μg / 24 hours for 50-60 months.
Intrauterine therapy is allowed for women with hormone replacement treatment in conjunction with estrogens that do not include a progestational compound. Levonorgestrel is a hormone that enters the plasma 60 minutes after ingestion. The maximum concentration in it is fixed after 14 days of use.
The use of this drug is possible with intrauterine therapy, as well as in the following cases:
- Menorrhagia of idiopathic orientation.
- Long-term contraceptive protection.
- Prophylactic measures for the replacement of estrogen.
- Emergency postcoital contraception.
The levonorgestrel hormone, the action of which has a vast sphere, should be used only after the doctor's recommendation.
Usage and dosage of
This drug is activated by intrauterine injection - it is inserted into the uterine cavity. It is used within 4 days after copulation in the volume from 0.75 to 1.5 mg. Emergency specialists are strongly advised not to practice emergency contraception more than once every six months.
To exclude the violation of the menstrual cycle, you must follow the recommended dosage without re-use. Do not use the drug in question orally as a method of continuous contraception, as this provokes side effects and reduces the effectiveness of the drug. In the case of uterine blood formation after emergency contraception, the examination procedure for a gynecologist is strongly recommended, and if menopause is abnormal for more than one week, it is necessary to wait until conception.
Only after a consultative and informed decision of a gynecologist in unusual cases is it possible to use the drug for contraception for minors in case of emergency.
How is the levonorgestrel hormone used?
How does the application of the described hormone affect the body, and what to do to avoid side effects? Many people ask this question. Strict adherence to the recommendations of a specialist, compliance with the dosage and following the instructions - this guarantees the safe use of the drug.
Before using the IUD it is necessary to undergo an examination of the gynecologist, including check the mammary glands, pelvic organs, and make a cervical smear.
Re-examination is carried out after 30-40 days after installation of the spiral, then annually, and in the case of the presence of the relevant prerequisites - more often. This intrauterine therapy is effective for 4 to 5 years. Its installation should be dealt with exclusively by a doctor specializing in this field or having experience with the sorting of the drug in question.
Women who take drugs with gestagen do not rule out the increase of venous thrombosis at the critical moment. With such symptoms, urgent measures for diagnosis and treatment must be urgently taken.
After seizure of the IUD, childbearing is resuscitated half a year in half of women who applied, after 12 months - more than 96 percent. The contraceptive orientation is less effective for obese patients.
Asking the question "Levonorgestrel - what is this hormone?"all contraindications should be studied. Among them:
- Super( hyper) sensitivity, thrombophlebitis formations.
- Thromboembolism, change in arteries.
- Diseases of cerebrovascular orientation, pregnancy.
- Concerning ingestion: jaundice( including history), pathological complications of the withdrawal of bile or liver, lactation period.
- In addition, for the IUS - infection of the genitourinary node, relapses or active inflammation in the small pelvis, the excesses of postpartum endometritis, acute liver disease.
- Septic abortive intervention in the last trimester, dysplastic transformation of the uterine neck, pathology with a similar bleeding of unknown origin, malignant formations.
- Coming or congenital anomalies, deforming fibroids.
- Progestogenesis( a tumor, including cancerous lesions of the breast).
Restriction factor is often relevant for therapeutic inside of the uterus if the following symptoms or chronic diseases occur:
- severe headaches, usual and local migraine with visual impairment, other symptomatology focused on the possibility of ischemic disease;
- pronounced hypertension of the arterial direction, jaundice, complex destructive processes in the circulatory system, including infarctions and strokes;
- diabetes is a sugar.
It is necessary to immediately consult about the elimination of the IUD in the formation or presence of any of these conditions.
Pregnancy and lactation period
Despite the fact that levonorgestrel is a female hormone, its use is unacceptable in pregnancy. If it has occurred, elimination of the system is recommended because any intrauterine contraception increases the risk of premature births and miscarriages. Conduction of uterine sensing or the elimination of the system sometimes leads to miscarriage that occurred arbitrarily. It will be necessary to consult a specialist about the advisability of artificial termination of pregnancy when it is impossible to extract the contraceptive correctly.
If it is not possible to remove the intrauterine system and persevering desire to maintain pregnancy, the patient should be aware of the possible consequences and risks for the child due to early delivery. In such cases, it is necessary to carefully monitor the course of pregnancy. Before the patient should be informed that she should immediately report all the symptoms that would suggest a complication of the process.
When breastfeeding and using "Levonorgestrel" approximately one-tenth of the drug enters the baby's body. Breastfeeding inside for emergency contraception should be stopped for 1.5 days.
For a therapeutic system installed intrauterine, as well as for any purely gestagenic method of contraception, it is characteristic that the application one and a half months after birth does not have a detrimental effect on the development and growth of the child, therefore, the drug most likely does not pose a risk for the fetus with the recommendeddosage.
And returning to the question of "Levonorgestrel" - what is it? ", Let's consider possible side effects and contraindications of the drug, which can occur in different body systems and represent the following symptoms:
- From the nervous system: fatigue, depressive state, headache, mood swings
- GI, Vomiting, upset, spasms, bloating
- Genitourinary organs: Bleeding, discharge, pain, candidiasis, the likelihood of the formation of malignant and benign tumors
- Skin rashesmanifestations of eczema, pruritus, urticaria, acne
- Other: swelling, joint pain, pressure jumps, sepsis
In rare cases, epileptic seizures, convulsions and fainting are possible
Combination with other
drugs When studying Levonorgestrel( what is thishormone), it is necessary to mention the possibility of its combination with other medicinal and organic preparations. In the case of using the substance in question with inductors of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, a decrease in efficiency is possible due to an increase in its metabolic processs.
The following drugs may reduce the effect of "Levonorgestrel":
- A group of barbiturates, "Tretinoin", "Carbamazepine", compounds of St. John's wort and containing its composition.
- The effectiveness of anticoagulants, hypoglycemic, anticonvulsant drugs decreases.
- "Levonorgestrel" increases the capacity of glucocorticosteroids in the blood, and is also able to disorganize the metabolism.
- Due to the inhibition of recirculation of sex steroids, which is due to the reorganization of the intestinal flora, menstrual bleeding may increase with the combined use of certain drugs.
We can not but add, speaking about how Levonorgestrel is used, that this drug causes an increase in the side effects of other medicines, there is no antidote to it. In case of an overdose, symptomatic treatment is required.