Venous system: structure and function
The venous system is an important part of the circulatory system of the human body. Due to it, slags and toxins are removed, the fluid balance in the cells is regulated. Here, the movement of the blood goes to the heart and is easy to enrich the lean mixture with oxygen.
General definitions of
The arterial and venous system provides the body with oxygen, minerals, nutrients. In the blood there are protective cells that allow to destroy foreign inclusions: bacteria, viruses, decomposition results. And also there is a conclusion of carbonic gas.
The venous system is the backward branch of the blood flow. Through it, there is a movement towards the heart. Here, the pressure in the vessels is minimal, fluid accumulates, and as a consequence, the venous walls are stretched.
The vessels of the venous system have check valves that exclude the reverse movement of blood. The veins contain a huge amount of bacteria in inflammation. Therefore, stagnation in the vessels is the cause of inflammatory processes in most cases.
Small veins remove blood from the skin of the skin, joints, muscles. They merge into larger vessels passing through the entire body - this is the upper and lower hollow veins. The first collects small veins from the head, cervical region, upper limbs. The second is connected with the leg area, the internal digestive organs, the hip area.
After passing through the heart, the blood returns to the pulmonary artery, where again it is saturated with oxygen and here carbon dioxide is released. There are no oxygen particles in this area. This is the only depleted region of the circulatory system.
In veins, the pressure is lower. If the blood pumps the heart in the arteries, the outflow of venous blood occurs due to muscle contraction. If this does not happen, the veins are stretched. Accumulated blood contains carbon dioxide, it also poses a threat to the health of the whole organism.
The veins have valves. To overcome them, blood requires an effort from the outside, and the heart often fails to cope with it. The photo clearly shows how this happens. Due to this, the blood can not flow back.
Orthopedic stockings help squeeze veins. But this is useful only when the person is moving. With a sedentary lifestyle, stockings speed up the work of the heart. He needs more effort to push the blood through the artificially created extra pressure.
It is better to wear orthopedic stockings for walking, running, physical training until the muscles themselves can not press on the vessels. Another negative factor that hinders the movement of blood through the vessels is the force of gravity. When a person is standing, the maximum load is due to body weight and hydrostatic pressure. In the supine position, the tension of the tissues decreases. Therefore, before putting on orthopedic stockings, it is recommended to raise your legs up for a few minutes, allowing the veins to be released as much as possible.
Blood along the arteries is easier and faster, without stretching the walls of the vessels. Therefore, they are less visible under the tissues of the skin. Diseases of the venous system appear externally due to the dark color of the blood. This becomes especially noticeable when the vessels are on the surface of the skin.
The venous system serves to accumulate blood, as well as return the depleted volumes to the heart and lungs. However, its functions do not end there. Vessels carry nutrients to the tissues, perform the functions of blood circulation, the saturation of tissues with carbon dioxide is of no small importance.
The outflow of blood through the veins of each person is different and depends on the conditions of existence, as well as individual characteristics of the body: sex, lifestyle, nutrition, hereditary diseases of the venous system. Chronic inflammatory processes in internal organs, infections, deviations in the immune system also have an effect. The reverse vessels divert the decay products from the following cells:
- is inflammatory;
The venous system of the lower extremities suffers more often. If there is a predisposition to vascular disease, then such people should take precautions. Otherwise, to mature age even the athletes swell the veins on their legs.
The venous system transports blood from the organs: the stomach, kidneys, intestines. Stagnation in the vessels affects the digestibility of food. Useful substances should be spread across all parts of the body. When saturated fatty foods are formed thromboses, which we observe on the surface of the skin.
The venous system undergoes tissue pressure from the circulation, it has several layers:
- Collagen: tissues resist internal blood pressure.
- Muscular protection tissues: contraction and stretching of the muscles helps the movement of blood and simultaneously protects the vessels from external influences( temperature, pressure, mechanical damage).
- Longitudinal fibers have elasticity, they work constantly when the body moves: flexion and extension of the torso, arms or legs, with the head tilted.
When the veins are stretched, the outflow is difficult, but with muscle contraction there is an additional force for pushing the blood. The speed of movement along the vessels is higher due to a set of the following factors: palpitation, chest movement during breathing, flexing of limbs, changing the position of the body in space, diluting blood by digestion, or acting drugs. Also, the blood flow increases due to the increase in body temperature: in a bath, hot tub.
Trunk veins have a significant diameter. Movement of fluid inside the vessels occurs in a certain direction due to the presence of numerous valves. They consist of fabrics of increased elasticity and strength. Withstand a huge number of compression cycles throughout the life of a person.
The operation of the venous system can not be effective without valves. In the period of their weakening, pathological conditions called varicosity can be formed. The most frequent place of his appearance is the lower extremities.
The venous system of the lower limbs is vulnerable due to high loads during walking, running and even in the usual posture - standing position. Diseases of the venous system appear for many reasons, not only physical. Means, for example, malnutrition. Excessive consumption of fried, salted, sweet leads to the formation of plaques in the blood, adhering to huge clots. A thrombosis is dangerous for any person.
First occlusions occur in small veins. But growing, clots can get into the main vessels leading to the heart. Severe cases of the disease lead to its cessation. Thrombi should be removed in a timely manner - so prevent a dangerous complication.
The most common varicose veins. More than half of the female population suffers from this disease. With age, the elasticity of the veins decreases, and the loads remain the same. Often overweight leads to the formation of stretched walls of blood vessels. The size of the heart does not change, and the volume of blood transfer increases with the purchase of additional kilograms.
An additional negative factor is a fixed lifestyle. Stagnation of blood provokes not only the appearance of vascular disease, but also complications in other parts of the body. Oxygen starvation affects the appearance of the skin of the face, hands, neck.
Types of complications
The cause of varicose veins and thrombosis of the legs is a disturbed venous system. The anatomy of the body is arranged in such a way that, in the passive way of life, the weakening of the walls of the vessels is inevitable. Similar deviations in health occur with malnutrition and malnutrition, the presence of bad habits, professional loads.
Among the numerous diseases of the circulatory system are:
- Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process on the walls of the veins, which subsequently covers the entire vessel. Thrombi are dangerous at a time when they break away from the vessel and begin to wander through the circulatory system. A thrombus can get into almost any part of the body, causing a severe condition. This is possible with the movement of small lumps in the heart or head region.
- Varicose is an externally unpleasant change in the venous canals. This is due to the thinning of the walls of the veins, the loss of their plasticity. The vessel increases its capacity, where dark blood accumulates. It is easy to see through the skin of a sick person. Affected areas take chaotic forms. The degree of pathology depends on the characteristics of the organism.
- Atherosclerosis of veins - occurs due to a violation of lipid metabolism. At the lumen of the veins, atherosclerotic plaques are formed, which complicate the normal outflow of blood. The started stages of the disease in the main veins can result in the loss of part of the limb. Signs of complications are tired feet when walking, limp.
- Teleangiectasia - describes the state of enlargement of small veins, due to this there are asterisks on the skin. This process is long-lasting: often deviations in health form a few years.
For women, high heels and a passive lifestyle have always been the negative factors in the formation of vascular problems. Stagnation in the legs appeared due to edemas, appearing as a result of a long standing position. The contracted veins constrict the blood flow and reduce the possibility of exchanging oxygen and nutrients.
Almost all pathologies occur due to the appearance of provoking factors:
- Thrombi and weakening of vascular tissues are due to smoking. Smoke deprives the blood of oxygen and saturates with toxins.
- Elevated blood cholesterol is more often formed as a result of malnutrition of fat-saturated food.
- Hypertension, diabetes mellitus promote the expansion of veins.
- Surplus weight.
- Addiction to alcoholic beverages.
- Hereditary factor is the main source of problems with the vessels of the legs. The presence of hemorrhoids in the parents indicates the risk of varicose veins in children.
- The fixed lifestyle combined with these factors speeds up the process of disease formation.
- Excessive physical activity or performing the same type of work.
To exclude problems with blood vessels, it is required to conduct a periodic examination of the circulatory system and engage in health: a balanced and balanced diet, moderate exercise, careful treatment of the legs.
The venous leg system can be tested by the following methods:
- Doppler study - recommended for hidden symptoms, vein problems. It is carried out with a primary suspicion of pathology. If there is no doubt that varicose veins or thrombosis has formed, then this method becomes unnecessary.
- Ultrasound duplex examination - combines the possibilities of ultrasound and Doppler scanning. The resulting indicators allow us to estimate the velocity of blood flow through the vessels, their geometry, the quality of the walls and the overall work of the venous system.
- Angiography - X-ray examination using contrast. The state of the vessels is assessed.
Problems with the lower parts can be detected by primary symptoms:
- Detection of the mesh of vessels on the legs, thrombus or external veins defects.
- Fatigue and leg pain in the muscular or vascular parts. Periodic swelling, inflammation.
- External defects formed asymptomatic.
- Vein dilatation, distortion of the shape of the vessels, swelling of the ducts.
- Pain in fatigue in the popliteal zone or other part in the area of the venous ducts.
- Cramps, aches, pinching.
Based on the results of the examination, an effective course of individual treatment is assigned, preventive measures for pathologies are taken. The pathological venous lymphatic system can not disturb a person during life. But the disease must manifest itself at an older age.
Development of pathologies
A weakened venous limb system undergoes several stages of varicose veins. Scientists subdivide the disease into 6 stages according to the degree of danger: from adverse to resuscitative. Heavy stages are treated already surgically.
We define the state of health of a person at each stage of the disease:
- Zero passes imperceptibly externally, but the condition of the legs is already beginning to bother. There is a burning sensation of the upper layers of the muscle skin. Often puffiness is formed, there is fatigue from walking.
- The first stage. A mesh of small vessels, sprockets and the states listed above is visible.
- Second. The swollen veins and the formed nodules of dark color are probed. The size of the area of pathology varies throughout the day. With a fixed lifestyle, the affected areas ache and ache.
- Third. To the listed conditions evening and night puffiness are added.
- Fourth. The upper layer of the skin is damaged. Appear dimples, tubercles of impressive size. Often formed trophic ulcers. The fifth stage. Residual effects after trophic ulcers are discernible to the naked eye.
- Sixth. Trophic ulcers are difficult to cure and practically do not heal.
Based on the established stage of the disease, doctors decide on a method of treatment. The last, 6th( complicated) form of varicose veins ends on the operating table. There may be external defects that require the intervention of plastic surgery. Severe outcome is disability, deprivation of limb.
How is vascular problems treated?
The venous circulatory system affects all areas of the body. Vascular diseases should be treated immediately. To avoid the formation of complicated stages of varicose veins or thrombosis, preventive measures are used. Expanded veins try to remove partially or completely. Thrombi are often excised to prevent accidental ingestion of them into the flow of blood.
Common methods of treating veins help to exclude further growth of the vessel, remove pathological areas, reduce the risk of complications. Sclerotherapy is used in cosmetology salons and clinics. The procedure is safe and takes several minutes. In the affected vessel is introduced a substance, gluing the walls together.
The body gets rid of the glued vein by its own forces. It dissolves, in its place formed clarified tissue. There are no external defects. The procedure can be performed without anesthesia. This method is used for small veins. On large vessels appear abundant cyanotic areas.
The laser coagulation method is chosen when the affected veins are large. The procedure is painful, requiring the introduction of local anesthesia. After this, a light guide is introduced into the affected vessel, the radiation of which brews the liquid contents of the vein. If the recommendations of the doctor are observed after the operation, the area obtained resolves.