Tetracycline teeth: causes, symptoms and treatment characteristics
Many patients turn to the dentist with a problem of changing the shade of enamel. This defect is called "tetracycline teeth".How dangerous is this diagnosis, does it require specific treatment?
What is tetracycline?
Tetracycline is the active ingredient of many drugs with a wide spectrum of action. Medications with this substance are used in the treatment of pneumonia, ulcers of various etiologies, skin rashes. For several decades, doctors could not understand why in patients after using a number of drugs, the enamel acquired a persistent yellow color. Only in 1980 there was a concept of "tetracycline teeth".Everything turned out to be extremely simple. Tetracycline, entering the body, mineralizes with calcium, provoking irreversible disturbances in the structure of bones. Such an effect can be obtained only if the tissue is in the process of formation. For this reason, young children and pregnant women are at risk of this defect. Moderate entry into the body of tetracycline does not threaten health. At large dosages, the substance is capable of causing hypoplasia.
Causes of development of pathology
Tetracycline teeth appear only in one case - when taking drugs with the same name component. The development of such a cosmetic defect can contribute to both oral and external use of medicines. Enamel darkens not at once, but over time. The specific period of manifestation of pathology depends on several factors. These are:
- individual features of the body;
- effects of food;
- influence of ultraviolet rays;
- the body's response to the drug.
External signs of
When taking medications with tetracycline, the accumulation effect manifests itself in different ways. Enamel can acquire a variety of shades, stain or completely change its color. Pathology usually begins to appear on the neck of the tooth or along its contour. When entering the body of small doses of tetracycline, only the inner part of the enamel is stained. In the case of constant use of drugs, the color of the teeth changes in a chaotic manner. For example, one canine is covered with stripes of gray hue with impurities of yellow, and the other remains unchanged. The very color of the enamel can range from poisonous-lemon to brown. With the simultaneous use of products with colorants( coffee, wine), the shade of the teeth becomes dark gray.
Basic principles of treatment of
Before the beginning of the course of treatment, it is necessary to make sure that the change in the shade of the enamel and other symptoms were caused by taking the drugs of the tetracycline group. Also, it is necessary to exclude the influence of other factors that can change the color of the teeth. What does that require? The dentist performs a visual examination of the dentition and studies the patient's anamnesis. One of the most effective methods of diagnosis is the use of a UV lamp. Under its rays, the areas in which tetracycline is present should be highlighted accordingly. After confirming the diagnosis, the doctor selects therapy. Treatment of tetracycline teeth is a laborious process that involves several steps:
- professional cleaning;
- fluorinated coating;
- cosmetological defect correction( whitening + restoration).
To achieve maximum effect, treatment should be comprehensive. Let's consider each stage in more detail.
Professional cleaning involves the procedure for removing hard and soft deposits from the surface of the enamel. It promotes more effective diagnosis, better penetration of medicines. Most of the procedures used in the treatment of this pathology are carried out in the absence of carious processes in the oral cavity. Therefore, before they start, you must eliminate all dental diseases.
Tetracyclin teeth, more precisely the spots on them, appear due to insufficient mineralization of the enamel. Replenishment of the deficiency of these substances is an important component of the course of treatment. To strengthen the enamel use drugs with fluoride, calcium and phosphorus. The standard course of treatment consists of 15 procedures for background and electrophoresis.
After remineralization, dentists recommend covering the teeth with fluorine lacquer. This preparation is a dark viscous liquid and consists of many useful components for enamel. After coating, a hard layer forms on the surface of the teeth. It protects enamel from the effects of negative factors and loss of minerals. Ftorlak is also designed to inhibit the vital activity of bacteria in the mouth, which contribute to the destruction of teeth.
Teethycycline teeth whitening
Dentists' comments indicate that treatment with tetracycline staining should be aimed at enamel strengthening and prevention of its further destruction. Therefore, apart from the course of therapy, a cosmetic defect is eliminated. Given the degree of damage, apply bleaching or restoration. Let's consider each variant in detail.
Whitening( vital or internal) is recommended when the enamel is uniformly colored. In the first case, a laser and a ZOOM lamp are used. With their help, you can lighten the enamel by about 10 tones, and the effect persists for several years. Laser whitening is considered the most gentle procedure. The doctor applies a special gel on the enamel, and then irradiates it with a lamp. At this time, the photosensitive coating starts to release oxygen, which helps to discolor the pigments on the teeth. This procedure is absolutely painless. The duration of treatment is determined by the dentist, taking into account the degree of neglect of such a pathology as tetracycline teeth.
The whitening with ZOOM-lamp is carried out as follows. First, hydrogen peroxide is applied to the enamel, and then it is irradiated with a special apparatus. This procedure is sometimes accompanied by discomfort and painful sensations.
Internal bleaching is indicated when staining deep tissue. In this case, therapeutic drugs are introduced into the pulp cavity. The choice of a specific method of cosmetology correction of the defect is determined by the doctor together with the patient. Each of them has both positive and negative feedback. The latter in most cases are due to the lack of professionalism of doctors and the low level of dental clinics. A certain role in the choice is played by the cost of the procedure. Using a laser will cost about 10-12 thousand rubles, the application of the ZOOM-device costs twice as much. For many, the decisive factor in the choice are photographs of other patients who have been bleached tetracycline teeth. Before and after each procedure, the shade of enamel on such pictures differs, therefore it is possible to draw certain conclusions about the effectiveness of this or that method.
Restoration is indicated for partial damage to the enamel of the teeth. Taking into account the degree of staining and localization of spots, in modern dentistry use a photocomposite, veneers or procedure of prosthetics.
A photocomposite is a special material that resembles resin in its appearance. The composition is applied to the tooth surface and then irradiated with a halogen lamp. Under the influence of light, the photocomposite solidifies, forming a firm crust. Recovery with veneers requires a different approach. During this procedure, a plate of ceramics is placed on the front surface of the tooth. This is quite an expensive method, but with it you can get the effect of a "Hollywood smile".If the deep tissues of the tooth are damaged, when the above variants of correction are powerless, prosthesis is used.
Let's sum up
Pigmentation on enamel is not always caused by the use of products with coloring components. Quite often this problem is addressed by patients after treatment with certain drugs. This article provides information on how to whiten tetracycline teeth. The choice of tools and techniques for the implementation of such a procedure is huge. Timely appeal for qualified help allows not only to return a beautiful smile, but also to prevent the development of complications.