The drug "Allopurinol": reviews of doctors, indications for use, side effects
To date, the drug "Allopurinol" is the basic( basic and pathogenetically grounded) drug, which is used in the complex therapy of such a disease as gout. Each person before trying something new, trying to find the maximum useful information about it. Therefore, we propose to understand in more detail when the "Allopurinol" should be used. The comments of patients and doctors will be presented in our material, and also you will learn what to be afraid of when taking this medication.
Pharmacological characteristics of the preparation
Allopurinol belongs to the group of antidotal drugs. The main active ingredients are allopurinol and its active metabolite, oxipurinol. Their pharmacodynamic effects are due to a violation of the synthesis of uric acid with the development of the urostatic effect. Ultimately, this leads to a decrease in its concentration, followed by dissolution of urate.
Due to its good solubility, "Allopurinol" has a high bioavailability. The drug is well absorbed in the lumen of the small intestine. In the stomach, the systemic blood stream does not enter. Presence in the blood plasma is observed after half an hour after administration, and the maximum concentration is observed after 1.5 hours. Accordingly, the maximum concentration of the metabolite of allopurinol - oxypurinol, is observed three hours after oral administration.
The drug has a long half life and therefore is capable of cumulation. In patients at the beginning of therapy, there is an increase in the concentration of the drug, which stabilizes after one to two weeks of therapy. Due to the long-term excretion of "Allopurinol"( doctors' reviews confirm this), it is not recommended for use by persons with renal insufficiency. In patients with preserved renal excretory function cumulation is not observed.
Allopurinol: indications for use of
The opinions of the doctors prescribing this drug state that its use is most effective and justified in cases of hyperuricemia( increased uric acid content per unit of blood volume) with:
- gouty arthritis( gout);
- urate diseases of the genitourinary sphere( nephropathy, urolithiasis);
- oncological blood diseases;
- congenital anomalies of the enzyme system.
In some cases, it is possible to administer the drug to children for the treatment of urate nephropathy, which arose against the background of leukemia therapy, with congenital diseases associated with a violation of the metabolism of uric acid, secondary hyperuricemia of various origins.
Features of the drug
Tablets "Allopurinol"( reviews warned about strict adherence to recommendations when taking medication) are taken after meals, they can not be chewed at all, but on the contrary, they are drunk whole and washed down with at least a glass of warm water.
People taking this medication always need to monitor their diet, and in cases of inaccuracy in the diet, it is necessary to adjust its dosage, but only under the supervision of its treating specialist.
The dose of the drug "Allopurinol" required for treatment is determined depending on the content of uric acid in the bloodstream. As a rule, it is from 100 to 300 mg per one dose of the drug "Allopurinol".Reviews of patients and doctors regarding this dosing are positive, since the medicine is taken only once a day.
Gout therapy begins with the appointment of 100 mg of the drug once a day. In case of insufficient efficiency and a weak decrease in the level of uric acid, the dosage is gradually increased( by 100 mg every two to three weeks), leading to an effective therapeutic under laboratory control of the level of uric acid. In such cases, the average dosage and further maintenance dose is 200 to 400 mg, but in certain situations the dose of the drug may be up to 800 mg. In this case, it is broken several times a day.
When prescribing a drug for patients with renal insufficiency, it is necessary to focus on the clearance of creatinine. Contraindications to the prescription of "Allopurinol"
The drug is contraindicated for patients with severe kidney failure, as well as pregnant and lactating. It is also not recommended to prescribe this drug to patients who have allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to one or several components of the drug. It is forbidden to use the drug in people who have borderline uric acid in the blood plasma, as its reduction can be successfully achieved by adjusting the diet.
"Allopurinol": side effects of
The reviews of patients who used this drug for the first time indicate that it is often possible to exacerbate the disease and increase symptoms of gout with the occurrence of so-called seizures. But this phenomenon is short-lived, and one should not fear it enough to stop therapy. But in cases of occurrence of any rashes, uncomfortable sensations or earlier missing symptoms, you should immediately inform the doctor about it. In this case, the reception of "Allopurinol" should be stopped immediately, and as the symptomatology disappears, the specialist can again prescribe the drug, but at a lower dosage( starting from 50 mg).Reception should be conducted under the careful supervision of the attending physician and in conditions of separation.
Among the adverse reactions from the nervous system and higher mental functions, depression may occur. On the part of the hemopoietic system, there is rarely a development of oppression of bone marrow function with the emergence of thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia.
When taking the drug, it is possible to develop metabolic disorders in the form of diabetes mellitus, increasing the level of fatty acids in the blood plasma.
From the side of the cardiovascular system, it is possible to develop arterial hypertension, bradycardia.
The incidence of adverse reactions to this drug is increased if the patient has renal failure.
Form release and dosage
"Allopurinol" is available in tablet form( 30 or 50 pieces per pack) at a dosage of 100 and 300 mg of active ingredient in one tablet. In the domestic market there is "Allopurinol Sandoz 300".Reviews about it are positive, since the drug in this dosage is prescribed only once a day, which practically negates the possibility of missing the medication.
Poisoning and overdose with
The poisoning is extremely rare, but there are cases of a single intake of 20 grams of the drug. The following symptoms were observed: dizziness, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea. With renal insufficiency and prolonged administration of large doses of the drug, severe symptoms of intoxication in the form of fever, hepatitis, and acute renal failure were noted.
Therapy for acute poisoning and overdose is symptomatic, aimed at accelerating the removal of the drug from the body. There is no specific antidote. To speedily remove the drug from the body, dialysis is effective.
Given that the period of accumulation of a given drug substance in the blood( in sufficient concentration to provide therapeutic effect) is on average one week, patients suffering from gout should practically lifelongly apply "Allopurinol".The comments of the doctors are unambiguous: the drug has proved itself well. But this is not a "miracle pill", which you can drink and forget about the disease. Gout is rather a way of life, not a chronic disease. But it is "Allopurinol" that helps to control the level of lactic acid and prevent the deterioration of the disease and its further progression.
From the point of view of the convenience of prescribing the drug "Allopurinol", the doctors' reviews are also positive, because the patient in most cases needs to take the medicine once a day. This minimizes the likelihood of missing the medication and, consequently, improves the effectiveness of the therapy.
Thus, the main cure for gout is "Allopurinol."Feedback from specialists and patients taking this drug is positive, and this again confirms the effectiveness of the drug in the treatment of gout and impaired uric acid metabolism. Thanks to the use of this drug, a huge number of patients gain the hope of reducing the complications of diabetes.