Syphilitic roseola: photos, symptoms, description, species, localization, differential diagnosis, treatment
Syphilis is one of the most common and terrible diseases of the 20th century. For a time, the disease caused a large number of deaths. Entire counties suffered from infection in Russia, and in the army every fifth soldier was infected. This is a classic venereal disease, which is mainly transmitted sexually or in utero. But it is possible to get infected and using personal hygiene items, from bites, with blood transfusions. The disease can occur in a latent form for decades, gradually moving from one stage to another, horrifying with its symptoms and external manifestations.
The causative agent of the disease
Hard chancre, inflammation of the lymphatic vessels, syphilitic roseola( spotty syphilids), papules, nodes and pustules are just some of the external manifestations of primary and secondary syphilis. But the true culprit for the damage to the skin, internal organs and systems is spirochaeta - pale treponema( Treponema pallidum).The microorganism was discovered only in 1905.It has an elongated shape of the body and fibrils, which makes it capable of spiral movements. That is, the pathogen can move freely inside the host's organism, penetrating into the intercellular connections and affecting the internal organs, vessels and tissues of a person.
The disease has three stages of flow. Primary syphilis is characterized by the gradual introduction of the pathogen into the body. At the site of the introduction of treponema formed a solid chancre - a painful ulcer. At the end of 6-10 weeks after infection, the systemic lesion of the organism occurs. All internal organs suffer( including bones, nervous, lymphatic system, hearing and vision).It is during this period that a repulsive rash appears on the body, one of the varieties of which is the syphilitic roseola. Photos of patients, whose skin is covered with rashes, look unpleasant. The rash occurs because a part of the microbe is destroyed under the attack of the cells of the immune system and secretes endotoxin, a dangerous poison with an angioparalytic property. This symptom of syphilis is found in 80% of all cases in the secondary period.
The organism usually manages to weaken the causative agent somewhat, as a result of which the disease passes into a latent( latent) stage. The rash disappears for a while to appear again soon. The reproduction of the microorganism is inhibited, but the weakening of immunity leads to relapses. All because the immune system alone is not able to completely defeat the disease. In addition, the temperature of the human body is perfectly comfortable for the life of the microbe. The secondary period can last from 2 to 4 years, flowing wave-like and accumulating all the new clinical symptoms.
What skin diseases can be confused?
Syphilitic roseola is similar to other abnormalities of skin that are characterized by a pink rash:
- Toxic dermatitis as a reaction to taking medications, food, household chemicals. The difference of allergic spots is that they are prone to fusion, itch, merge with each other.
- Pink lichen appears in the form of symmetrical round spots. This is a non-dangerous viral skin lesion that passes by itself without treatment. In this case, there is always a maternal plaque( up to 1 cm in diameter), which is found first and has a larger size. The remaining elements appear gradually, their shape and dimensions may be different and different from each other.
- Marbling of the skin can occur in response to hypothermia in absolutely healthy people. Through the skin, the enlarged capillaries simply gleam, giving it a marble shade. Syphilitic roseola after vigorous trituration of the covers becomes even brighter, and the marble pattern, on the contrary, disappears.
- Spots of pearly( multicolored) lichen also have a pink color, but sometimes acquire a shade of coffee with milk. They are located on the back, chest and more often on the upper half of the body. They originate from the mouths of the hair follicles, they are strongly flaky, unlike the manifestations of syphilis.
- For the presence of pubic lice indicate traces of bites of carpenters. In the center of spots of gray-violet color, you can always notice a small point. Traces do not disappear if you press them.
- With rubella, the rash is found not only on the body, but also on the face. It rises a little above the covers, affects the pharynx and disappears on the third day. The body temperature rises, conjunctivitis occurs, lymph nodes increase.
- Measles is also characterized by a sharp increase in temperature, edema of the eyelids, inflammation of the membranes of the upper respiratory tract, difficulty breathing and conjunctivitis. The rash is large, prone to draining, white dots are visible on the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums.
- Typhus and typhoid fever occurs with a strong general intoxication of the body, fever and weakness. If you smear stains with an alcohol solution of iodine, they get a darker shade.
Syphilitic roseola: differential diagnosis of
Roseola caused by syphilis must be distinguished( differentiated) from other types of spotty rash, similar in appearance. And also from insect bites, allergies, infectious diseases( herpes, gonorrhea).The causes of the appearance of other rashes are completely different, as are the features of the manifestation, appearance, general symptoms and methods of treatment.
With the help of laboratory methods it can be determined that the rash is a syphilitic roseola. Diff. Diagnosis is carried out on the basis of serological blood tests by detecting antigens and antibodies to the pathogen. A 100% result is provided by the RIF analysis. To do this, the blood of a rabbit infected with the pathogen of the disease and a special serum are added to the patient's blood sample. When observed in a luminescent microscope, the presence of treponema in the body confirms the flashing - fluorescence. The absence of infection is manifested in a yellowish-green glow.
An interesting fact: if a patient is injected intravenously with 3 to 5 ml of nicotinic acid( 0.5% solution), the spots become brighter. Also of great importance for the diagnosis is the presence of other symptoms of secondary syphilis. And also the formation of a solid chancre in the stage of primary syphilis.
Other symptoms of
Symptoms Pink or red in color of rounded shape shows syphilitic roseola. Symptoms of secondary syphilis also include:
- fine-focal or diffuse alopecia( occurs in 20% of patients and passes with the onset of therapy);
- "necklace of Venus" in the neck, rarely on the shoulders, limbs and lower back;
- papular syphillis;
- pustular syphilis;
- lesion of the vocal cords and hoarse voice.
Symptoms of rash
Syphilitic roseola, whose photo is presented in large numbers on the Internet, is characterized by certain features:
- single spot sizes up to 1 cm;
- eruptions have unclear contours;
- the surface of the spots is smooth, unbalanced;
- outlines are rounded and unbalanced;
- there are no merged elements;
- spots do not protrude above the skin;
- does not grow around the periphery;
- when pressed, slight lightening of the shade is possible, but not for long;
- no pain, flaking and itching.
Long-termed roseola can acquire a yellowish-brown tinge. By themselves, rashes do not cause harm and do not pose a danger. However, they are a signal of the body that he needs urgent help.
Syphilitic roseola: localization of the rash
The limbs and lateral surfaces of the trunk( chest, abdomen) are considered to be the preferred places for the location of spots. It can be on the limbs of the extremities, to hit the upper part of the legs. Roseola rarely occurs on the feet, hands and face. The placement of the rash is disorderly and copious. It appears gradually, reaching its final development for 8-10 days. The syphilitic roseola of the variety has, depending on the appearance of the spots.
Types of syphilitic rosole
There are the following types of roseol:
- fresh( appears for the first time), the most abundant rash of bright color;
- is urticaria, or edematic( resembles hives);
- annular syphilitic roseola is characterized by spots in the form of rings or semirings, arcs and garlands;
- with a recurrent or discharge roseola, the spots are usually much larger, and the color is more intensive, but their number is smaller.
Very rarely, patients develop scaly roseola covered with lamellar scales, and also similar to blisters that rise above the skin.
Mucous membranes often develop erythematous syphilitic sore throat. On the throat appear erythema draining dark red color, sometimes with a bluish tinge. Their contours sharply border on healthy covers of the mucous membrane. The patient does not feel pain, it does not fever, and the general condition is practically not broken.
If you suspect a syphilitic nature of the rash, it is important to contact your doctor as soon as possible. Diagnosis is done by a dermatologist or venereologist.
The rash disappears spontaneously after a few days( sometimes months), gradually changing the shade. Subsequently, there are no traces on the skin. It is necessary to treat not rashes, but their causes. Fortunately, the causative agent of syphilis is a rare microorganism that has not yet developed resistance to antibiotics. Syphilitic roseola, treated with conventional penicillin( sodium salt), is prone to exacerbation. Already after the introduction of the first intramuscular injections, the rash acquires a rich red color. The patient may have a fever. And the spots are formed on those parts of the body, where previously they were not. As part of complex therapy, as well as a decade ago, intravenous infusions of arsenic compounds( Novarsenol, Miarsenol) are used. Also solutions of iodide salts and other auxiliary preparations are used. Treatment necessarily takes place in a stationary environment, which allows you to constantly monitor the patient's health.
Treatment should be conducted by courses, alternating with interruptions and being long-term. The scheme of therapy is selected individually, taking into account the clinical features of the disease. To eliminate the rash is prescribed lubrication with mercury ointment, washing with salt solutions, as well as thorough hygienic skin care.
Forecast for recovery
Syphilis is successfully treated in healthy and young people with a strong body. For children and the elderly, it is always difficult to predict a positive result. The patient's condition can be aggravated if he has serious heart damage, diabetes, kidney disease, liver, rickets in the anamnesis. In addition, the patient should stop using alcohol and limit smoking during treatment.
It is important to understand that syphilitic roseola is a rash that occurs when the disease is already serious. If you do not begin treatment at this stage, it will lead to irreparable consequences, irreversible disorders of the brain and spinal cord, circulatory system and other internal organs. Syphilis smoothly and imperceptibly pass into the third stage, which absolutely can not be treated. With tertiary syphilis, which develops in 40% of cases, it is only possible to maintain the vital functions of the body and stabilize the condition. Like many venereal diseases, syphilis often ends up with a disability or fatal outcome.
Syphilis is a serious disease that can be treated only in its early stages. About the systemic lesions, when the therapy every day is all ineffective, the rash - syphilitic roseola testifies. Description of preventive measures is standard for all types of sexually transmitted infections. First of all, it is necessary to avoid promiscuous sexual relations, casual sexual contacts. The barrier method of contraception is still the main method of precaution. Using condoms, a person not only protects himself from infection, but also protects against possible infection of the sexual partner. After all, not every person is 100% sure that he is completely healthy, given that some diseases have a long incubation period without any symptoms.