Antibiotic "Maksipim": instructions for use, analogues and reviews
The discovery of the first antibiotic( known today to all known penicillin) in the middle of the twentieth century was a real breakthrough in medicine. During the Great Patriotic War this medicine saved lives for thousands of defenders of the Motherland.
Since then, biochemistry and the pharmaceutical industry have developed rapidly and offered consumers more and more new antibacterial drugs. One of the most modern and widely used in different directions of medicine is "Maksipim", reviews of which regulate this tool as very, very effective for various bacterial infections.
Composition and Form of Release
The main active ingredient of this drug is cefepimidihydrochloride monohydrate. Foma of release - a powder of a whitish-yellowish shade for preparation of a solution for the subsequent intramuscular or intravenous introduction. In several dosages, the manufacturer offers its product "Maxipim" to consumers. Antibiotic can be purchased in vials with a dose of 500 mg and 1 g.
The formulation prepared for administration can be stored at room temperature during the day. In the refrigerator, the shelf life of the finished solution is increased to 1 week. In the form of powder and in the corked bottle the drug can be stored for 3 years. The necessary conditions - temperature up to + 30 ° C and a place protected from light. The color change of the solution does not affect the activity of the drug.
"Maxipim" instruction for use is positioned as an antibacterial agent belonging to the group of 4 generation cephalosporins. The principle of action is the destruction of the cell wall of bacteria, strains. The drug has a broad spectrum of influence in relation to a number of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, characterized by their resistance to aminoglycosides and antibacterial agents of the third generation of the cephalosporin group.
Maxipim is characterized by its resistance to beta-lactamases and activity against a large number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes( for a detailed list, see the instructions for use).But the drug is not active in relation to methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci.
After the introduction of the antibiotic "Maxipim"( instructions for use includes this information) is fully absorbed. Therapeutically significant concentrations of the main active ingredient are found in urine, bile, bronchial secretion, in the prostate gland and peritoneal fluid.
The elimination half-life is approximately two hours. For comparison, we can say that, for example, in adult patients who received intravenously for 2 days 2 grams of drug with a time interval between procedures of not less than 8 hours, no accumulation of cefepime was found in the body. The greatest volume is excreted in the urine( up to 85% of the initially received dosage in the form of unchanged cefepime).
Indications for use
Antibacterial "Maksipim" instructions for use recommend the appointment of various types of pathology of infectious-inflammatory nature. Good results will be obtained in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections( pneumonia and bronchitis including) and urinary ducts( both uncomplicated and complicated, including pyelonephritis).Positive dynamics is observed with the therapy of various intra-abdominal infectious lesions( not excluding biliary tract infections and peritonitis).
Also "Maxipim" is widely used by medical workers for the treatment of gynecological infections, infectious lesions of the skin and soft tissues, septicemia( sepsis).In the treatment of patients suffering from febrile neutropenia, Maxiphil recommends the use of the instruction as an empirical therapy.
Another area of influence of the drug is bacterial meningitis in children. Here, this antibiotic also excellently proved itself.
For prophylactic purposes, the drug is used to prevent infections during oral cavity surgery.
In general, we can say that "Maksipim" can be used for any infectious diseases, the development of which is provoked by bacteria and strains sensitive to it. To identify the microorganism-pathogen and determine its( or their) sensitivity to this antibiotic is supposed to do tests. However, Maxipim affects such a wide range of bacteria and strains that it can be taken as monotherapy even before identification of the pathogen. If there is a risk of developing a mixed infection( aerobic-anaerobic), then before the tests for identifying pathogenic bacteria, you can begin treatment with Maxiplex in tandem with a drug that affects anaerobes.
Methods and dosage regimens
The dosage and type of administration( IV or IM) are determined depending on the sensitivity of the bacterium, the severity of the disease and the state of the patient's kidneys. And in / in the path is usually preferred in cases where the infection is severe and actually threatens the life of the patient.
For people with healthy kidneys and a body weight of more than 40 kg, injections are done at a frequency of 12 hours at doses prescribed by the doctor. Disorders of urinary tract of mild and moderate severity, other infections that occur with the same intensity, are treated with doses of 0.5-1 g, administered intramuscularly or intravenously( as the doctor decides).To combat severe infections, 2 g of the substance are administered intravenously( the same frequency is 12 hours).For very serious and life-threatening infections, the required dosage is also 2 g, but the frequency is every 8 hours.
The antibiotic Maxipim is used for influenza only in those cases when during the course of the viral infection a bacterial infection is also connected.
In the process of conducting surgical procedures( 1 hour before the beginning) for prophylactic purposes, 2 g of Maxipim are administered intravenously for half an hour, after which 500 mg of metronidazole is additionally poured. At the same time, both substances should not be administered.
The average volume of the drug for patients with a body weight of less than 40 kg in the treatment of urinary tract infections( complicated and uncomplicated), soft tissue and skin lesions( uncomplicated), pulmonary inflammation and empiric therapy of neutropenic fever is 50 mg per kilogram of body weight. Injections are done at a frequency of 12 hours. For bacterial meningitis and neutropenic fever, the same 50 mg / kg is recommended to be administered at intervals between procedures equal to 8 hours.
Patients suffering from abnormalities in kidney function need to adjust the maintenance dose. Antibiotic "Maksipim" description of the drug( the dosage depending on the type of pathogen and the severity of the infection will be selected by the attending physician) recommends the initial volume of the drug to be the same as for people with healthy kidneys, and the appropriate dosage should be selected depending on the values of creatine clearance.
Those patients who take Maxipim and undergoing hemodialysis are advised to re-inject a new dose of antibiotic at the end of the procedure, which is equal to the initial dose. This is necessary, because for 3 hours of hemodialysis, up to 68% of the total amount of Maxipim is removed from the body( the instruction contains this information).
Contraindications for the reception of "Mexico"
Despite the extremely wide range of effects of this antibacterial drug, it does not have a large list of contraindications."Maxipim" instructions for use prohibit people with individual hypersensitivity with cefepime and L-arginine. It is also unacceptable to prescribe it to patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, other beta-lactam drugs, antibacterial cephalosporin type drugs.
Attention to your well-being during the treatment "Maxipim" should include pregnant women and nursing mothers, people suffering from diseases of the digestive tract, especially with regard to such ailments as ulcerative or antibiotic-associated colitis, regional enteritis.
As for the effect on reproductive function, it must be said that in clinical trials on animals no negative effects on the mother and fetus were detected. However, well-controlled studies of the effect on the body of women were not performed. Therefore, it is permissible for pregnant women to take Maxipim only under the supervision of a doctor. In women's breast milk, medicine is allocated in very small quantities, but it is not worth the risk. During the lactation period, the medication should be taken with caution.
In addition, the Maxibim antibiotic instruction recommends the use with great care of those who suffer from severe forms of chronic kidney failure. Studies have shown that in patients with CRF, the half-life of the substance from the body increases. At the same time, people with impaired liver function or cystic fibrosis do not feel any pharmacokinetic changes associated with the absorption and excretion of cefepime from the body.
Side effects, exceeding the permissible dose
In general, it can be said that "Maxipim" is well tolerated by patients, and the incidence of adverse events is not high. Of all recorded cases, most often it was about the disorders of the functioning of the digestive tract( dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting) and hypersensitivity reactions( rash, skin itch, fever).
In addition, the information available about such a drug, such as the antibiotic Maxipim, is a description of the drug, an instruction for its use, indicates the possibility of cardiovascular reactions in the form of tachycardia( rapid heartbeat) and chest pain. Breathing organs can manifest themselves with sore throat, dyspnoea and cough. The most likely reactions from the central nervous system will be insomnia, headaches, dizziness, anxiety, confusion, paresthesia are possible. From other manifestations, we can talk about asthenia, vaginitis, sweating, pain in the back, peripheral edema. Also, as side effects, medical experts say a possible change in laboratory indicators.
With regard to the excess of the permissible doses of the antibiotic Maxipim, the instructions for use indicate the effectiveness of hemodialysis in such cases.
What should I look for?
A lot of different extraordinary situations can develop during the period when the antibiotic "Maxipim" is prescribed. How to apply it in such cases? If "pseudomembranous colitis" with prolonged diarrhea develops against the background of "Maxipim", it is generally stopped and prescribed vancomycin or metronidazole.
If the patient suffers from a combination of severe hepatic and renal insufficiencies, the medical staff should constantly monitor the concentration of the drug in the blood plasma and, depending on the indices, adjust the dosage.
If the antibiotic is used for a long period of time, it is important to regularly monitor the composition of peripheral blood and the functional parameters of the kidneys and liver.
In cases where a patient from a remote infectious focus is observed meningeal dissemination( spread of the pathogen both within the focus and throughout the body), there is a suspicion of meningitis or a diagnosis is already established, you should abandon the treatment of "Maksipimom" and appoint aor an alternative antibacterial agent with the efficacy confirmed for the diagnosis.
There is a probability of revealing a positive reaction to the Coombs test, false positive - for the presence of glucose in the urine.
"Maksipim" with flu and cold( ie with viral infections) will not be effective.
Interaction with other substances
If the patient is assigned to receive Maxipim, the application of other medications in parallel should be under the supervision of the physician. This antibiotic is not pharmaceutically compatible with other antimicrobial medications and heparin.
The tubular secretion of cefepime will be significantly reduced when combined with diuretics, aminoglycosides and polymyxin B. The same tandem of LS will increase the concentration of Maxiprim in the serum, increase nephrotoxicity until the development of nephronecrosis. In addition, the half-life will increase.
Combining Maxiprim with NSAIDs( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) will inhibit the removal of cephalosporins from the body and may cause bleeding.
Application in combination with other bactericidal antibiotics( aminoglycosides) will result in the manifestation of synergism, with bacteriostatic - antagonism.
Medicines-analogues are chosen on the basis of the international non-proprietary name( INN), the name of the main active ingredient( for "Maxipim" such is cefepime).The most popular analogues of the antibacterial agent "Maxipim" are experts' reviews of such drugs as "Cefepime-Alpa", "Cefepim", "Movizar", "Maxi cef", "Cefepim sterile".
This is far from a complete list, and as for the name "Tsefepim", here, besides the above, there are also "Cefepim-Vial", "Cepepime-Aggio", "Cefepim-Jodas", "Cefepim-Alkem", "Cefepimagt; hydrochloride & quot; .
Also, for different types of bacterial infections, medical workers prescribe drugs "Ladef", "Efipim", "Kefepim", "Cefomax", "Tsepim".
As for analog medicines, they may not always be as effective as a licensed drug.
Opinion of patients and health workers
Since the drug has a wide range of applications for a variety of microbial infections, the opinions about Maxipim are both positive and negative. Most people who took an antibiotic were satisfied with the results. Improvement of the state of health even in severe forms of bacterial infections occurred at 2-3 days from the beginning of the course of therapy. According to medical workers, the drug has also proved itself in a variety of clinical situations. Yes, and the cost of the drug is not so that it is very high( there are medications cheaper, but at the same time there is much more expensive than Maxipim).
However, there are not such bright opinions about this medicine. Basically, those patients who have side effects appeared during treatment. In addition, a negative opinion was expressed by a separate group of people who took Maxipim antibiotic for a cold. Although in this case the result, so to speak, is expected. Any cold has a viral nature, and "Maksipim" is a bactericidal drug whose principle of action is based on the destruction of the bacterial cell membrane.
You can buy medication only if you have a prescription from your doctor. And this is correct: a physician with special knowledge and experience will thus select an antibacterial preparation and calculate the minimum effective dose that all the risks associated with the development of side effects will be minimized, and the positive impact on the body will be maximized.