How to check the small intestine? Methods of diagnosis. Preparing for a colonoscopy
The human digestive tract begins in the oral cavity and ends in the rectum. That is, it passes almost through the whole body. If you measure its length, it will be more than 3 meters. One of the components of the digestive tract is the small intestine. It is the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Disruption of the small intestine leads to a violation of these functions. As a result, enteritis develops, a disease that manifests itself by changes in the nature of the stool( diarrhea, constipation) and pain syndrome in the abdomen. How to check the small intestine for pathology? Diagnosis of diseases of this department of the digestive tract is carried out in various ways. Among them - endoscopic, X-ray and laboratory studies.
Indications for the diagnosis of the small intestine
In what cases is the small intestine checked? Research of this department of the gastrointestinal tract is carried out in the presence of symptoms of pathology. The most common diseases of the small intestine include inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplasms. The following indications for the diagnosis of pathologies are distinguished:
- Acute and chronic enteritis. It is an inflammatory disease that can be caused by various pathogens. Among them - E. coli, entero-and rotavirus, staphylococci, etc.
- Crohn's disease. This pathology refers to specific inflammatory processes. With Crohn's disease, all parts of the digestive tract can be affected. Most often, destructive changes are observed in the small intestine. It is believed that the disease has an autoimmune development mechanism, and is also inherited. Benign tumors of the small intestine. These include polyps, fibromas, lipomas, angiomas, etc.
- Oncological pathologies of the small intestine. Develop from undifferentiated cells. The causes of intestinal cancer are the presence of long-term chronic inflammatory processes, benign tumors, malnutrition and stress.
The reason for the diagnosis are such complaints as persistent abdominal pain( near the umbilical region), anemia, stool disruption.
How to test the small intestine: methods
Given the location of the small intestine, it can be argued that access to it is usually difficult. Therefore, the assessment of the state of this body is carried out in 2 ways. The first( FGD) involves examination of the organ through the oral cavity. So you can see the initial section of the small intestine. The second method of diagnosis is a colonoscopy. In this case, visualization is carried out by inserting the endoscope through the anus. With the help of a colonoscopy, you can assess the state of the distal small intestine.
In addition to endoscopic methods, there are other methods of diagnosis. How to check the small intestine without a colonoscopy and EGD?The following methods of organ research are distinguished:
- Physical examination. It is the first stage in the diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine. A physical examination means palpation and percussion of the abdominal region.
- Laboratory research. Due to the analysis it is possible to find out whether there is an inflammatory process, as well as oncological pathologies. To laboratory methods of diagnosis include: OAK, study of stool, swab for cytology.
- Radiography of abdominal organs with contrasting. This method helps to identify the presence of changes in the walls of the intestine, the shadow of neoplasms.
- Biopsy and histological examination. It is performed if there is a suspicion of an oncological process.
All listed diagnostic procedures are of great importance in the identification of pathologies of the small intestine. Often it is necessary to perform several research methods.
How to test the small intestine: analyzes for diseases
After the collection of complaints and examination of the patient, if there is a suspicion of a disease of the small intestine, laboratory diagnostics is carried out. First of all, a general and biochemical blood test is prescribed. UAC can detect the presence of an inflammatory process in the body. In addition, with the help of it you can find out the nature of the pathogen( bacteria or viruses).If the acceleration of ESR is expressed, it is necessary to suspect an oncological disease. Of great importance for diagnostics is the analysis of cala - koproskopia. It reveals undigested food remnants( muscle fibers, fiber, fatty acids).
Endoscopic examination of the small intestine
How to test the small intestine with endoscopic methods of examination? For this purpose, there are 2 diagnostic procedures. The first is the FGD.With the help of this survey, it is possible to visualize the upper sections of the digestive tract. They include the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Thanks to the EGF it is possible to diagnose: duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, Crohn's disease. All these pathologies develop with inflammation of the initial section of the small intestine. In addition, this endoscopic procedure helps to identify good and malignant processes within the PDK.
Diagnosis of the small intestine often involves a colonoscopy. A similar examination is prescribed for a stool disorder, abdominal pain. With its help you can visualize not only a thin, but also a large intestine. It allows to assess the condition of the walls and lumen of the organ. Thanks to the colonoscopy, inflammatory changes in the intestine, destructive processes, neoplasms are revealed. In addition, simultaneously with this study, a biopsy of the organ tissues can be performed.
Preparing for a colonoscopy procedure
Preparing for a colonoscopy is very important. To conduct a qualitative examination, the intestine needs to be completely cleansed of stool. Also, visualization can be disturbed by the accumulation of gases in the lumen of the organ. Preparation for a colonoscopy includes the following stages:
- Compliance with the diet 2-3 days before the examination. It is necessary to exclude from the diet products leading to increased gas production. They include some vegetables( cabbage, beets), apples, white bread and other flour products, milk porridge.
- Cleansing of the intestines. This can be done with the help of medication. The drug for cleansing the intestines is the laxative "Fortrans".The drug is available in the form of a powder and diluted in 3 liters of water. The resulting solution should be used on the eve of the study and in the morning( before the procedure).
You can also clean the intestines with an enema. However, one procedure will not be enough. It is recommended to perform a cleansing enema 3-4 times.
Diagnosis of oncological pathologies of the small intestine
How to check the small intestine for oncology, and also to distinguish a benign tumor from cancer? To suspect a neoplasm is possible on complaints of the patient and results of the listed methods of diagnostics. However, the exact diagnosis can be made only after special surveys. These include a biopsy, an analysis of cytology and histology. To take a material for the study can be done with the help of endoscopic diagnostic methods - FGDS( with a tumor of the duodenum) or a colonoscopy. Cytological analysis allows you to assess the state of cells from which the neoplasm consists. The degree of differentiation of the tumor tissue is established by histological examination.
How to suspect small intestinal cancer?
Oncological processes in the small intestine are not considered to be widespread cancerous pathologies. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose such diseases on time. Only with certain symptoms and after a series of studies can you suspect small intestinal cancer. Characteristic features include: pain in the umbilical ring, mesogastrium. In addition, there may be a change in the shape and consistency of the stool, constipation. Less often patients are concerned about nausea and vomiting( when the tumor is located in the proximal part of the intestine).In most cases, the cancer develops against the background of duodenal ulcer, polyposis, Crohn's pathology.
How to check the small intestine when a tumor is suspected? First of all, the patient needs to take a blood and feces analysis. In feces, "hidden blood" can be found. This symptom often indicates an oncological process in the small or large intestine. When blood is detected in feces, a colonoscopy with tissue biopsy is performed.
In what clinics can you check the small intestine?
Where can I check the small intestine for pathology? Diagnosis of digestive tract diseases is performed in almost all medical institutions. Most of the research is done on an outpatient basis. When the patient is in the hospital, the diagnosis of small intestinal diseases is performed in a hospital. You can make a colonoscopy in any clinic that has suitable equipment for endoscopy.
Physical examination of the small intestine
The physical methods of diagnosis include a patient questioning and examination. With palpation of the abdomen, it is possible to detect such changes as the increase or decrease in peristalsis at a certain site, swelling, and westernization of the anterior abdominal wall. All these signs indicate a violation of the small intestine. However, an accurate diagnosis can not be made without laboratory and instrumental research.
X-ray diagnosis of small intestine diseases
X-ray of the small intestine is often performed with contrasting. For this purpose, a suspension of barium is used. Preliminary need to clean the intestine( as in colonoscopy).After the review, the patient should drink a contrast agent. It stains the intestines, thereby improving visualization. Further, a number of X-ray photographs are performed. Thanks to this study, it is possible to detect changes in the contours of the intestinal wall( with Crohn's disease), the presence of neoplasms in the lumen of the organ, and ulcerative defects.