Therapeutic diet and nutrition. Diabetes type 2: treatment features, menus
Diabetes mellitus is not a verdict, but still one of the most serious and common diseases of the endocrine system. In the case when such a diagnosis is made, the doctor puts the patient on the register and constantly monitors his condition, prescribes the necessary examination and treatment. However, anyone who has encountered such a diagnosis will confirm that the recommendations and instructions of the doctor are most relevant to what the person is eating. In fact, it is the cardinal changes in nutrition, the choice of foods and methods of cooking - this is the basis of treatment, on which the course of the disease and the general condition of the patient depends. That is why today we decided to highlight what a proper diet and nutrition should be. Type 2 diabetes is a complex and rather dangerous disease, therefore all the recommendations that we give should not only be learned, but also printed and placed in a conspicuous place.
A bit of theory
In fact, a simple man in the street is a little hard to understand that diabetes can be different. Although, of course, in any current of this disease, a suitable diet and nutrition are needed. Diabetes type 2 is a disease inherent in the older generation, and the disease itself develops gradually, it can take months, and even years, before a person realizes that he is seriously ill. The severity of clinical symptoms is usually not too bright. In almost 90% of cases, this type of diabetes accompanies obesity, and most often they suffer from women. Treatment is primarily a diet and special oral medications that lower blood sugar levels.
Diabetes of the first type
In contrast, type 1 diabetes can also occur in young people under the age of 30 years. In this case, the onset of the disease is usually acute, the clinical symptoms are pronounced sharply. Very often body weight, on the contrary, is reduced, this form of the disease is more common in men. For treatment, insulin therapy and diet are mandatory.
Diet violation: how dangerous is this?
The fact is that diabetes is a chronic ailment. Never a doctor can guarantee you a full recovery, that is, even if all recommendations are followed, the risk of deterioration always remains. That is, you are wrong if you think that a few sweets or a couple of glasses of alcohol do not carry any threat to you. Such frustrations nullify all your previous efforts and turn into an even more severe diet. Therefore, especially the first time, you need not just carefully monitor your diet, but also maintain a food diary.
Principles of nutrition
So, we already know that with this form of the disease the most important treatment is a proper diet and nutrition. Diabetes type 2 will allow you to lead a normal normal life in the usual rhythm, if you comply with a number of conditions. However, it is this form of diabetes that often becomes quite late, because of the mild manifestation of clinical symptoms, the diagnosis is delayed, which means that a person does not follow a specialized diet. As a result, the diet maintains a large amount of carbohydrates, and the level of glucose in the blood increases. That is why our today's topic is so important. All that a person needs to normalize is a proper diet and nutrition. Type 2 diabetes is a lost sensitivity to insulin, that is, the ability to absorb sugar, and we, by adjusting nutrition, gradually restore it.
What products are made from the diet
In fact, nothing particularly terrible in the medical diet for diabetics there. This does not mean that you will eat one carrot. Observing certain rules, you can make a diet so that you do not feel deprived and at the same time eat varied, interesting and tasty. Of course, you will have to give up carbohydrates, this is a prerequisite, without which type 2 diabetes is not treated. Diet and nutrition, however, can be quite diverse and attractive, and somewhere even exquisite. After all, there are so many delicious and useful products in the world, in addition to potatoes, macaroni and sugar.
So, first of all, you should have fresh vegetables and fruits in your assortment on your table. And this does not mean that you will have a cabbage salad to the main dish. Experts recommend to consume 900 g of vegetables and a minimum of 400 g of fruit. They can be combined with a variety of products, with meat or sour-milk products. Many people have the question: "Is it possible to completely abandon carbohydrates?"Indeed, carbohydrates are primarily the energy that the body needs regardless of whether a person has type 2 diabetes. Diet and nutrition should be full, and therefore, you can include in the diet of 200 g of potatoes and 100 grams of bread or 2 tablespoons of any porridge.
But vegetables and potatoes are far from all that you can afford. In the day, you can add 300 grams of fish and meat, as well as 0.5 liters of dairy products. It turns out a useful and satisfying menu. The only inconvenience is that it is necessary to exclude flour and sweet foods from the diet. We have already said at the outset that a curative diet for type 2 diabetes is aimed at restoring metabolism. That's why all delicious cakes and cakes are your worst enemies. They need to be completely replaced by vegetables and fruits.
What to do sweet tooth
If you do not think yourself without sweets, then there is a way out. Of course, without measure there are cookies and sweets will not work. However, if for the whole day you refuse from hydrocarbon-containing products, then you can afford a small piece of sweet pie( about 100 g).In your diet on this day should be meat and fish, vegetables and cottage cheese. However, believe that it is difficult to adhere to this menu only the first time. Refined sweets are alien to our body, so it will only take a couple of months, and all metabolic processes will return to normal, which means that you will pass by the counter with cakes calmly, without the burning desire to immediately eat one of them.
Instead of sugar, the use of sugar substitutes in standard quantities is allowed. You can also use honey, but not more than 2 tablespoons a day. But choose desserts with vegetable fats, as their splitting slows the absorption of sugar. Another rule: sweet can not be used as snacks.
Principles of building a diet
You will have to learn them by heart if you want to defeat type 2 diabetes. Diet( nutrition) implies a reduction in caloric intake, but it is very important that it remains full and provides the body with everything necessary. We are all different, so the menu should take into account the energy costs. The less you move, the more modest your diet can be. So, for women, you can meet 1200 kcal per day, and for men - 1400-1600 kcal. Take food at the same time, this is the measure that ensures the smooth functioning of the digestive tract.
Nutrition for patients with type II diabetes implies a necessarily fractional meal, that is, the patient needs to eat often, at least 5 times a day. The main meals should be about the same in calories, and between them - light snacks. In the evening, it is desirable to leave vegetables and fish or boiled meat.
Despite the fact that this is a diet, it is very important not to get hung up on the same foods and dishes, but constantly experiment, so that the food is really diverse. Fresh vegetables are added to each dish.
In addition to all that said, proper nutrition in type 2 diabetes involves limiting animal fats and complex carbohydrates, virtually eliminating salt, eliminating overeating. Completely have to give up alcohol, and it is also recommended to drink at least one and a half liters of clean water a day.
Features of the diet, the glycemic index
As you can see, there are not so many adjustments in the diet that type 2 diabetes makes. Nutrition( diet 9) implies a mandatory breakfast and snacks, but you can not starve with this disease. The last meal should be no later than 2 hours before bedtime. In this case, the temperature of the ready meals plays a role. They should not be excessively hot or, conversely, cold. It is advisable to start the meal with vegetables, and finish with protein products.
It is undesirable to increase the glycemic index of products. This can be achieved by additionally frying, adding flour, breading in breadcrumbs and flavoring with oil, so it is better to eat boiled and stewed foods. Glycemic index is an indicator of the ability of products to cause a rise in the level of sugar in the blood. All foods with high GI( more than 70) should be excluded from the diet.
What is XE
Finally, the grain unit( HE) is another indicator familiar to all diabetics. And this XE contains 15 grams of carbohydrates. The daily norm for a diabetic is 18-25 XE, which must be divided into 6 meals. This is not so little.1 XE is equal to 25 g of white bread, half a glass of buckwheat, 1 apple, 2 pieces of prunes. Based on this simple scheme, you can calculate your carbohydrate diet for a day and adhere to it firmly. As you can see, you will not remain hungry if you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diet( treatment and nutrition, two in one) will help maintain the metabolic processes in the norm, and also will lose weight and get rid of all the attendant problems.
Several menu options for the day
To make it easier for you to understand what a diet menu is, we decided to show you several options. For breakfast, you can choose either millet porridge and an apple, or an omelette with vegetables, or a curd casserole with berries. For the first snack or lunch, yoghurt or ryazhenka with bran or a pair of green apples is perfect.
Lunch is a very important meal, you can not miss it. For the first option we can offer you vegetarian soup, pepper stuffed with meat and vegetables, as well as fresh salad. The second option is a vegetable soup made from cauliflower and millet porridge with a meat goulash. Finally, the third option is vegetable soup and baked meat with vegetables. Such a hearty and varied dinner just will not leave you hungry. The time for a snack is approaching: treat yourself to a curd casserole with carrots or cabbage salad, or you can just drink a glass of kefir. Finally, dinner should be the easiest meal, but at the same time it is nutritious enough. It can be chicken breast with vegetables, or braised veal with vegetable stew, or boiled shrimp with vegetables. As you can see, for a healthy person a diet with type 2 diabetes is quite suitable. The menu and recipes visually demonstrate that therapeutic nutrition is not only useful, but also very tasty, satisfying and practical.
Top recipes for table № 9
Sooner or later all dishes become boring and there is a temptation to throw a diet, especially since the state of health is quite normal. But do not forget that not a temporary, but a permanent measure is the "9 table" diet for type 2 diabetes. The best recipes we have specially collected for you, so that you understand that eating properly is not at all boring.
Would you like a delicious salad? Cook an appetizing appetizer with a cod. You need 200 grams of cod fillets and 100 grams of boiled potatoes, one tomato and cucumber, 1 egg, lettuce leaves and canned peas. Make a salad is not difficult, boil the egg and potatoes, cut into small pieces, add peas and lettuce, then let the fish and dressing.
I wanted a new hot dish? Try cabbage rolls with buckwheat porridge. You need a fork of cabbage, it should be boiled until half cooked. Separately boil the crumbly buckwheat porridge, add boiled egg to it. Place the minced meat in cabbage leaves and lay cabbage rolls in a deep frying pan. It remains to add sour cream and bake for another 30 minutes.
Cooking a useful dessert
As a dessert you can try apple souffle, a tasty and healthy dish. You will need 3 egg whites and a teaspoon of sugar substitute, as well as 2 apples. Fruits should be baked in the oven and wiped through a sieve, and then, together with the sweetener, cook over low heat until thick. Whipped into the foam proteins are introduced into hot mashed potatoes, then the mass is laid out in a mold and baked for 10-15 minutes. Bon Appetit!