Human back: basic functions and structure

The human back consists, conditionally, of two large parts: the supporting and the motor. Let's talk more about each of them. Consider in general what is the back, the spine parts, their functions and features.


The support part of the back consists of the spine and arms and legs attached to it from both sides of the limbs. One end of the spinal column is attached to the skull and leaves inside. The second end ends with coccyx.

Hands and feet are attached to the spine not directly, but with the help of "auxiliary" ligaments, cartilages and bones - scapula, sacral, pelvic. These "additional" parts of nature has given us not by chance. They, as well as two bends on our spine, perform the role of depreciation.

Let's imagine that nature decided to arrange our body differently, and the limbs of the arms and legs are attached to the spine directly. At the first attempt to raise something with one hand, not even very heavy, a person will get a dislocation of the cervical spine.

Why we are arranged this way

The structure of the back of a man is well thought out. It is the connecting bones and ligaments that provide a safe and competent distribution of weight and load on the entire spine. And thanks to them, there is an additional space where the kidneys, lungs( upper lobes), ovaries and uterus in women, the rectum are located.

Pelvic bones absorb shock when walking, running and jumping. And the extremities of the legs act as a lever, which distributes the load evenly and smoothly over the entire vertebral column.

When we carry two bags of 10 kg, it seems to us that all the weight that falls on our spine is 20 kg. However, the burden on the back is much more severe. In addition to these two bags, there is still the weight of our body, clothes( perhaps decent in weight - winter, for example) and the weight of the bags themselves. Moreover, plus a constant change in gravity, when riding an escalator, for example, balancing on corners, shaking while walking. Having calculated the load that falls on the spine, you can say for sure that this is not 20 kg. This weight is more than this figure at least three times.

Why the spine bends


The back of a person is not perfectly smooth outlines. The spine has two bends.

A bend in the neck area extinguishes residual vibrations when the body moves. If this bend was not, first of all our brain would suffer. He is extremely sensitive to any movement and shaking. Of course, from the inside it is fixed with special ligaments that look like combs that hold it in place and do not let it shake when walking and jumping. But the bend in the cervical region serves as an additional shock absorber. It softens and redistributes the load and unnecessary waves in this place.

Bending around the waist is also a shock absorber. Absolutely all the stresses that our body experiences when lifting weights pass through the lower back. Here they soften.

Conductive function of the spine

a man with a sick back Anatomy of the back is such that the vertebral column is needed not only to support the vertical position of the body and the redistribution of the load. There is at it one more important function - conducting.

Inside the spine, as on a tube, the spinal cord passes. It is reliably protected from injuries and strokes by the tissues of cartilage and vertebrae. It does not exercise thought functions.

The spinal cord consists of a huge number of neurons of white and gray color. White transmits signals to the brain from nerve endings about pain, damage to some organ or tissues. In gray, slowly, go to the brain secondary in importance and meaning signals: the filling of the stomach, the organs of excretory system.

The spinal cord can be called the "main cable" of the human body. It is through it in the brain every day receive thousands of signals from all organs that are outside the skull.

Engine unit

For any movement, whether it is a jump, step or turn of the neck, our muscles need an impulse, an order from the brain. Without this, movement is not possible. This is why people with severe spinal trauma have limb movements, losing control over the muscles of the legs, hands, pulmonary diaphragm, and pelvis. All this is very interconnected.

Without impulse, even with healthy and developed muscles, neither our body nor limbs will move. Muscles, in turn, after receiving momentum from the brain, carry out a very difficult work at the anatomical level: they begin to contract and move, flexion, extension of our limbs. Bending occurs in a strictly defined amplitude, which determines the anatomical arrangement of the joints.

back load Components of the dorsal areas

Let's talk about this in more detail:

  • Vertebrate - located above the vertebral column, begins at the base of the skull and ends with the coccyx.
  • Scapula - located perpendicular to the vertebral column, located directly above the scapula.
  • Subcutaneous - located to the left and right of the vertebral column, under the scapula.
  • Sacral - located in the sacral region, perpendicular to the vertebral column.
  • Lumbar - located parallel to the sacrum, above the lower back.

parts of the back Two main categories of back muscles

According to the research, this is:

  • Superficial muscles are located outside the bones and lining the surface of the ribs, collarbones, skulls.
  • Deep - represent a complex multi-layer structure that participates in maintaining the human body in an upright position. Their location affects various parts of the back, from the skull to the tailbone.

Let's consider each category in more detail. We will clarify the functions of each subcategory.

Surface muscles

In turn, they are divided into the following:

  • Trapezoidal - starts at the base of the skull, attached to the head with spatula and collarbone. Performs the function of approaching the blades with the spine. In addition, control of the inclination of the head back and extension of the cervical spine is also performed by the trapezius muscle of the back. Its anatomy is very interesting.
  • The widest - the base for it is the six lower, seventh cervical and all lumbar vertebrae. Has an additional point of attachment in the region of a small convex shoulder. Its function is the movement of the shoulder.
  • Large diamond-shaped muscle - attached to the first-fifth vertebra of the thoracic region and on the lower edge of the scapula. Its function is to move the scapula.
  • Small rhomboid muscle - attached to the first and second vertebra of the neck and the edge of the scapula. It plays a role in making rotational movements by the blade.
  • The muscle that lifts the scapula is attached to the first-fourth vertebrae of the neck and upper part of the scapula. It plays a role in moving up and down.
  • Upper posterior toothed muscle - attached to the sixth to seventh cervical and first to second thoracic vertebrae. Its function is to lift the ribs and provide the process of inspiration.
  • Lower posterior cog muscle - attached to the last vertebrae of the chest, the first to the second lumbar vertebrae and to the bottom of the last ribs. Its function is to help in providing an exhalation.

trapezius muscle back anatomy Deep muscles

Among them are the following:

  • Belly muscle of the head - is attached to the vertebrae of the neck and partially on the vertebrae of the thoracic region. Its function is to provide turns, tilt back of the head and neck.
  • Belly neck muscle - attached to the vertebrae of the neck and thoracic region. Provides turns of the cervical spine, extension of the spine in the cervical region.
  • Muscle, straightening the spine - attached to the sacrum, thoracic region and lumbar region. As follows from the name of the muscle, its main function is to maintain the spine in an upright position.
  • Transverse-awned - attached to the transverse and upper vertebrae. Its function is the extension of the spinal column and the provision of body rotations.
  • Mezhostistaya - a small muscle that is located next to the spine. Participates in the process of extension of the spine.
  • Inter-transverse - attached to the transverse and upper vertebrae. Participates in flexion and extension of the spine.

Slanting muscles

They have very important functions - they ensure the correct physiological position of internal organs, support them in their place. Participate in the formation of proper posture.

Located in the abdomen and the press, go to the back.

Striped muscles

Are the basis of the human body. Named so not by accident. Under a microscope they have the form of transverse bands. In other words they are called skeletal muscles.

Their main feature and difference from other muscle groups is the ability to control them with the help of consciousness and complete control over the process of contraction.

As you can see, the structure of the back of a person is quite complex and thoughtful. That the back does not cause inconvenience and was always in a tonus, it is necessary to do exercises, to develop a muscular skeleton, to pay attention to a correct bearing not only during walking, but also during sleep.

sleep on the back How to sleep

From the wrong and uncomfortable position of the body during sleep, deterioration of the state of health, appearance, bags under the eyes may appear. Here are a few recommendations for a beneficial rest:

  • The best way to sleep on your back. In this position, the organs and tissues of the body are well supplied with oxygen, the body rests. Sleep in this position is useful in varicose veins, heart and vascular diseases. The only thing you need to pay attention to is a pillow - it should not be too high. The chin should not touch the chest. Otherwise, the vertebral artery will be transmitted, which threatens to violate the blood flow. And this, in turn, affects the color of the face, the work of the heart and well-being in general. It is contraindicated to sleep on the back, even with a low or orthopedic pillow, pregnant women, as well as people who snore or are prone to night-time breathing stops.
  • Sleep on the side - also useful, provided that the position of the body changes from time to time. From a long sleep on one side in the kidneys, stones may appear. Earlier, in ancient China, with problems with the stomach, pancreas and heart prescribed sleep on the left side, and with depression and frequent nervous breakdowns - on the right. It is worth noting that sleeping on your side is better, without bending your legs heavily - it's bad for the spine. A dream on the side with a pillow between the legs or a special orthopedic divider, in contrast, unloads the spine and hip joints.

The most "wrong" dream

The most harmful dream is a dream on the stomach. In this position, the head and neck are turned to the side, the vertebral arteries are squashed, the blood flow is disturbed. The muscles of the neck and shoulders are in tension. This position of the body is useful only for flatulence( it is no accident to lay babies on the tummy).Also on the stomach it is useful to lie to women after childbirth. In this position, uterine contraction and intestinal work improves.

Signs that our body sends to us

Almost every person has ever had problems with back in his life. Sometimes these problems are the result of neglecting simple rules, uncomfortable sleep, incorrect posture. Let's talk about some of them:

  • Back pain between the shoulder blades. The reasons can be different: from hard and hard work to uncomfortable position of the body during rest. People who often sit a lot( working at a computer, in the office), can also disturb the pain in the back between the shoulder blades. The causes of such ailment can be hidden in a variety of diseases: in ischemic disease, premenstrual syndrome, osteochondrosis, curvature of the spine, peptic ulcer exacerbations, excessive loads and fatigue.
  • Back pain. It occurs with radiculitis, lumbago( chamber), with sciatica( pinching and squeezing the nerve).
  • Pain in the sacrum. It happens with osteochondrosis, and some gynecological problems, displacement of the fifth vertebra, injuries, infections, hernias, hemorrhoids, menstruation. Also observed during pregnancy.
  • Pain in the coccyx. This happens with osteochondrosis, pinching the roots of nerves from a long stay in a sitting position, after childbirth, after falling( with a fracture or bruise), during pregnancy, with pinch of the sciatic nerve, coccygeal cyst, some gynecological diseases and neurology.
  • Pain in the cervical spine is observed in osteochondrosis, rheumatic polymyalgia, spondylitis, thyroiditis.

What is kyphosis of the spine

Kyphosis is the deflection of the spine, in other words, it is the humped back of a person. There are many reasons for this phenomenon: hormonal imbalance, myogelosis, osteochondrosis, trauma, fractures, atrophy of bone tissue, menopausal changes. Often the hump appears because of stooped back. The spine gets used to this position, and the hump grows gradually. This problem is often eliminated through exercises or surgery.

You can still list for a very long time. It is important to understand that with any discomfort in the body, one should not look for an answer and treatment on the Internet. A person with a backache should consult a doctor. Only this way, not using a computer and the Internet, you can solve the problem. relaxation of back muscles

Gymnastics and tricks for relaxing

The back of a person needs rest. Muscles, which are in tension and pinched by spasm, not only hurt, but also bend the spine. The vertebrae are displaced, clamping the neurons that exit the spinal cord. And this, in turn, can cause pain and lumbago anywhere. There may even appear pain in the chest and heart area.

Neck muscles that are in constant tension( resulting in a spasm) can adversely affect vision, eye nerves and blood flow to the head.

Many of our problems and discomforts arise from the fact that our back "forgot how to rest."The situation can be corrected. It is only necessary to start doing gymnastics, follow the posture and, perhaps, change something in your way of life.

Exercises aimed at relaxing the back muscles

human humpbacked back

Here are some of them:

  • Preparation. As in any gymnastics, before going to the exercises themselves, you need to do a warm-up: lie down on the floor or on not too soft sofa. Pull your knees to your chest. To wiggle so from side to side. To have a rest and to repeat some times.
  • Stand exactly. Legs together, hands on the waist. Alternately raise that one, then the other shoulder.
  • Stand on all fours. Bend your back like a cat. Relax. Repeat several times.
  • The same, only standing. Bend your back back.
  • From the prone position on the abdomen, make the boat leg. Hands under the hips.
  • The same, only now the hands are involved, legs rest. Hands must be locked in the "lock" behind their back, try to raise their shoulders and head from the floor as high as possible. Hands, head and shoulders pull back, to the feet.
  • Lie on your back. Legs bend at the knees, pull up to the chin. Embrace your legs with your hands, bend your head to your knees. Repeat several times.
  • Also useful from time to time to hang on the crossbar.

back pain between the shoulder blades If you have problems with your back, it would be nice to visit a manual therapist, do a massage course and do exercise therapy. And remember, everything needs to be treated on time.