Aberrant Pancreas: Diagnosis, Symptoms and Treatment
An additional, or aberrant pancreas - is the rarest abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract, when one more appears in addition to the main gland. The organ is located in the antral part of the gastrointestinal tract, near the wall of the stomach or 12-finger, ileum or small intestine, and mesentery. It is considered an anomaly and appears in addition to the main organ, having the same tissue, but it has nothing to do with it. How pathology manifests itself and what needs to be done, we will consider further.
What is hidden under the term "aberrant pancreas"?
The additional gland appears as a result of abnormal development. Consider her appearance of the disease is not worth it, in some cases, she does not show herself at all and almost does not prevent a person from living a full life. To reveal a pathology it is possible casually, during carrying out of a laparotomy which has been appointed or nominated for other reason. For example, when the pancreas is checked for abnormalities, with surgical intervention to remove ulcers in the stomach or intestines, promptly cure cholecystitis in calculous form.
The tissues of the abnormal gland and normal organ consist of the same components. The aberrant pancreas consists of a duct that opens its lumen into the stomach or intestine. As a result, in the extra gland pancreatitis can develop in an acute form. To the rare ailments can be attributed gastrointestinal bleeding.
Causes of the development of the additional gland
Until now, scientists are struggling over the main of the issues: for what reason is formed a double aberrant pancreatic duct. But there is reliable information that there is an anomaly still in the womb, and many undesirable factors influence its development:
- an unfavorable ecological background affecting the woman during the period of gestation;
- genetic pathology;
- smoking and taking alcohol-containing drinks during pregnancy;
- frequent depressive conditions and stress;
- infectious diseases that were transferred by a woman during childbearing, including syphilis, rubella, herpes and others;
- reception of unwanted drugs for pregnant women.
Symptoms of the disease
Clinical manifestations of the presence of the aberrant pancreas depend on its size and location of localization. If it is in the area of the walls of the stomach, the symptoms are very similar to the manifestation of gastritis, and if located in the area of the duodenum, then in this case, the manifestations may indicate the development of ulcers. In addition, there may be signs indicating pancreatitis, cholecystitis or appendicitis. These signs do not force the patient to see a doctor, and the pathology can not be detected for a long time.
But in most cases, the symptoms are almost not manifested, the patient's complaints arise only with the development of complications. These are:
- inflammatory processes;
- perforation of the wall of the intestine or stomach;
- intestinal obstruction.
The most common complications occur if the accessory gland is localized in the small intestine. Complication in this case is its obstruction. And if there is still inflammation in the body, the patient can develop dyspeptic disorders, severe pain in the peritoneum.
During the laboratory examination, hyperlipazemia and hyperamilazemia can be detected.
Forms of the disease
There are several forms of the aberrant gland. It can be represented:
- by all the existing components of the pancreas: ducts and secretory parts;
- exclusively exocrine part, which is responsible for the production of gastric juice;
- directly by the endocrine part, helping to produce vital hormones that regulate blood sugar levels;
- adenomyosis - pancreatic tissues are introduced into the large 12-papilla( this is the place of opening the duct of the gland into the 12-colon).
Location of aberrant gland localization
Aberrant pancreas in the stomach and in other organs can be located:
- to the duodenum;
- the walls of the gallbladder;
- of the liver;
- small intestine;
- mesentery of the small intestine, in the fold or mucosa of the abdominal cavity.
How is the disease diagnosed?
It is possible to detect pathology by different methods, it all depends on the place of its localization. If the aberrant pancreas lobe is located on the wall of the duodenum, in the large intestine or stomach, then in this case it will be easy to identify. In most cases, it is detected during a screening study. The age of patients who are most often diagnosed with an ailment is 40-70 years.
Anomaly can be detected by several methods:
- Endoscopic .In this case, the gland is a large-sized islet of glandular tissue, often reminiscent of a polyp, which is located on a wide base. Often at the top of such an islet there may be an indentation, which is an endoscopic sign of the aberrant gland. If you take a superficial biopsy during this test, it will be difficult to obtain accurate data.
- X-ray .In this case, the anomaly can be a large formation, which is noticeable in the form of a cluster of contrasts. But in this case, the mouth of the duct may also be noticeable, which is also contrasted.
- US .When carrying out an ultrasonic examination, additional gland can be seen, but it is promoted by the hypoechoic structure, the presence of additional cavities and the anechoic duct.
- CT of the abdominal cavity. This study will help to identify the gland if it is located on the walls of a hollow organ. This examination helps to conduct differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasm. In the presence of a tumor, there is an invasion into the adjacent organs with the peritoneum and the presence of metastases. But differential diagnosis can be difficult if the tumor is localized in submucosal layers( leiomyoma, lipoma and myosarcoma).
Treatment of aberrant pancreas
Patients who have an abnormality are found to immediately fall under the surgeon's knife. They have a reasonable question: is it worth removing the aberrant pancreas? Leave it without attention is impossible, because it is dangerous because it can occur malignization of tissues. During its detection, it is necessary to urgently undergo a series of studies that will help to exclude the development of a malignant tumor. But after the final diagnosis it is recommended to remove the anomaly, but what method the surgeon chooses for this depends on the location of the gland.
If the additional organ is located superficially, then endoscopic electroexcision is recommended. If the organ has cysts, then in this case, fenestration of the cysts takes place.
Conservative treatment also works well if there is no risk of cancer. Long-acting drugs are recommended, analogues of "Somatostatin" are best suited. Simultaneously, symptomatic therapy is performed.
The aberrant pancreas of the antrum of the stomach is not dangerous to the patient until the pathological processes begin to develop. This is why, in the presence of an additional gland in a patient, treatment may not be used, but a specialist should have constant monitoring.
Complications and consequences of
It is worth remembering that it is not necessary to completely ignore the presence of an abnormality in the pancreas, because with any negative influence it can easily lead to the development of such pathologies:
- pancreatitis - additional gland inflames;
- bleeding in the stomach or intestines;
- is a malignant neoplasm of the accessory gland or pancreatic.
Prophylaxis of complication development by the accessory gland
If there is an additional gland, then it should be monitored regularly for further development. To prevent complications, prevention is necessary:
- Stick to a diet: more in the diet to add easily digestible protein, foods fortified with fiber. A minimum of fats and nothing that would increase appetite.
- Take medications that help the digestive process, for example, "Creon" in the form of mini-microspheres. Capsules easily mix in the stomach with food and enter the intestine. This is necessary in the absence of the development of their own enzymes.
- Refusal from smoking and alcohol.
If you follow the recommendations and are constantly observed by the doctor, the additional gland will not cause any inconvenience. In any case, continuous monitoring by a specialist is necessary in order to timely identify complications and take the necessary measures.