Nevus melanocytic, papillomatous nevus( photo).The borderline melanocytic nevus is. ..
Almost every inhabitant of the Earth, who does not have a black skin, has at least one birthmark, in medicine called only nevus melanocytic. Somewhat unusual for the Russian language the word "nevus" is borrowed from Latin and means all the same birthmark or birthmark. In the process of life, for unknown reasons, new birthmarks appear where there was a clean skin, and the old ones disappear somewhere. Some people are frightened, others are uncomfortable, especially when dark spots begin to "decorate" the forehead, nose, cheeks. Let's try to understand what moles are, or, scientifically, nevuses, what they are, where they come from and whether it is possible to somehow influence their appearance.
What is Nevus
There are special cells in the skin of people and animals - melanocytes, producing a dark pigment - melanin. In animals, it affects the color, determines the color of the eyes. In humans, it is melanin responsible for the intensity of sunburn, that is, protects against ultraviolet and other harmful rays to the body. When the pigment is evenly distributed over the skin cells, it has a uniform color, tone. If suddenly - for reasons unknown to science - in separate cells it accumulates an excessive amount, such areas on the general background begin to be allocated, that is, a birthmark appears, or a pigment nevus. The nevus melanocytic is the same. Still synonyms of the same concept - a nevus melaniform or non-cellular. The color of these formations varies from black to light brown, sometimes violet. If the birthmark of red( wine) color, it is called a flaming nevus and is formed due to a large accumulation of not a pigment, but capillaries too close to the surface of the skin. For example: a flaming nevus on the head and part of the forehead is in Gorbachev, the last president of the Soviet Union.
Some people may be on the same level with the skin, others have a little more than a melanocytic nevus over its surface. The photo above shows a slightly protruding pigment nevus. Infants do not have such marks, although scientists tend to think that they are simply too small to be noticeable. They start to appear more distinctly somewhere from 9-10 years of age. In most cases, simple nevus pigments behave peacefully and do not cause any problems other than cosmetic defects.
Types of birthmarks
Melanocytic nevus of the skin can be of two types:
These pigmentations are small in size( up to 1.5 cm in diameter), medium( up to 10 cm) and large or giant( more than 10 cm) in size. Congenital nevuses of any size with the growth of a child also increase in diameter. The most dangerous are the average nevi, large and giant, since they are the most likely to degenerate into malignant melanomas. For what reasons babies are born with large and giant birthmarks, experts say it is difficult to say. According to statistics, about 5% of babies born with a giant nevus, develop skin cancer in the first year of life or slightly older. Therefore, parents who have babies born with large birthmarks should consult a specialist. If the giant nevus is located on the face, the doctor can recommend its discoloration with a laser, and if in other parts of the body - removal. The latter procedure is also recommended if the large birthmark has a dark color and a bumpy surface.
During the life of pigmentation spots can appear on any part of the body, including the scalp, genitals, palms, soles of the feet. English scientists have established that a large number of moles reduce the risk of osteoporosis by about a factor of 2 and significantly reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and nevus degeneration into malignant melanomas is observed in about 16% of people with pigment marks.
Reasons for the appearance of moles
Scientists in each case can not say why a person appears to have a nevus melanocytic. But there are a number of common causes leading to pigmentation.
So, congenital birthmarks can appear if during pregnancy the following occurred:
1. Intrauterine infections( herpes, toxoplasmosis, smallpox and others).
2. Taking pregnant women with some medications.
3. Increased intake of vitamin A.
4. Alcohol intake.
5. Diabetes mellitus in pregnant women.
6. Lack of micronutrients.
7. Heredity. Very often already in DNA it is laid down, that the nevus melanocytic will appear at the child on a body in a certain place. And often hereditary birthmarks are identical in the baby and his mother or are very close to that.
The acquired nevus may appear for the following reasons:
1. Large doses of ultraviolet. Unregulated sunburn and excessive infatuation with a solarium provoke increased production of pigment melanin, which leads to the formation of moles.
2. Changes at the hormonal level. This includes any condition( illness, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, stress, and so on), in which there are hormonal failures. They, in turn, cause additional pigmentation of the skin, although in some cases, on the contrary, can lead to the disappearance of the already existing birthmarks.
5. Skin trauma. They can cause the movement of melanocytes closer to the surface of the skin, that is, the pigment spots become more noticeable.
Classification of moles
Medical names of nevi sometimes cause some confusion. However, in fact, everything here is quite simple and logical. The human skin includes layers: the epidermis( closest to the surface), the dermis( middle, thickest) and hypodermis( deepest).Depending on the location of the melanocyte accumulation, the following types of pigment spots are distinguished:
- epidermal nevus( located in the upper layers of the skin - epidermis);
- intradermal( correspondingly, the accumulation of melanocytes is observed in the deeper layer - the dermis);
is a borderline melanocytic nevus( this is an increased amount of melanin between the epidermis and the dermis);
- hypodermal( location of the pigment in the hypodermis) - this kind of nevi is not practically visible, but under certain circumstances, melanocytes can move closer to the surface of the skin.
According to the structure and nature of the manifestation, the following types of nevi are distinguished:
- papillomatous melanocytic nevus;
is a Mongolian spot;
- hairy( from a birthmark one or more hairs grow, more often of dark color, irrespective of, the blond person or the brunette).
- nevuses Setton, Clark, Spitz,
Let us consider in more detail some species.
What is papillomatous intradermal melanocytic pigment nevus
In this long and somewhat difficult for perception definition, several concepts are concluded at once. So, it was already noted above that the terms "melanocytic" and "pigmented" mean the accumulation of melanin pigment in melanocytes, which produce it. Intradermal nevus essentially means the location of melanocyte accumulations in deeper layers of the skin and externally represents a tubercle protruding above its surface. Its synonym in medicine is the expression "intradermal melanocytic nevus".If it has a flesh color, moreover, and is located on the stalk, there is a lot of similarity to the papilloma. Hence the name - nevus papillomatous. Such formations appear mainly on the head( the scalp), neck, face, but can be observed on any other part of the body. Their color, in addition to the bodily, is brown, brown, black, and the small-hummocky structure resembles a cauliflower. In medicine, you can find other of its names, for example, a nevus warty, linear, hyperkeratotic. There are two forms - organic, when papillomatous birthmarks are observed singly, and disseminated, when there are many such warty tubercles. Often they are located where large blood vessels and nerve vessels pass. If a person has such a pattern, this may indicate a central nervous system, in particular epilepsy. Although the papillomatous intradermal melanocytic nevus of the skin, appearing with birth, is constantly growing, it is referred to benign melanoma-hazardous species of pigmented formations. Despite this, it must certainly be shown to a dermatologist, that to find out whether it is nevus, papilloma or melanoma. It is especially important to see a doctor if the papillomatous birthmark suddenly starts to hurt, itch or change color. When establishing the diagnosis, the doctor conducts a visual examination, and if necessary, does siascopy, ultrasound, biopsy.
Complex melanocytic nevus
This definition is used when the mole, born in the epidermis, grows into the dermis. Outwardly, it is slightly similar to a wart, not more than 1 cm in diameter. Like other types of nevi, the complex is considered benign, however, according to medical statistics, in more than 50% of cases it can be transformed into melanoma. Therefore, it is referred to as melanoma-dangerous formations. By its structure, the complex nevus can be smooth, hilly, hairy, warty, and in color more often dark - from brown to black.
It is believed that about every tenth person has on the skin an atypical or dysplastic melanocytic nevus. The photo above shows how it might look. This name is given birthmarks due to its fuzzy, as it were blurred boundaries, asymmetry, size( as a rule, they exceed 6 mm), unlike other moles. The color of atypical nevuses can be very different - from light beige or pink to dark brown. In medicine, there is a synonym for this pigmentation - Clark's nevus. If you find yourself in such a strange birthmark you should always see a doctor to make sure that there is no melanoma. Doctors believe that atypical nevi in themselves do not pose a health hazard, but people who have them are at risk of developing skin cancer, not necessarily at the spot of the pigmentation spot. During life, atypical nevi, like any other, can disappear on their own, but this is not an excuse for excluding a person from the risk group.
So-called pigment spots appearing on the spot where the birthmark was removed. The return nevus, as a rule, means that the tissues of the birthmark have not been removed completely and a second operation is required.
This is another pigmented formation, due to the presence of which people fall into the risk group for the onset of melanoma. Appear on the skin are such birthmarks more often in children under 10 years of age, but adults from them are also not insured. A distinctive feature of nevus Spitz is its rapid growth. So, suddenly emerged on the skin, in just a few months, it can increase in diameter from a couple of millimeters to a centimeter or more. Another of his unpleasant traits is that he can give metastasises to adjacent areas of the skin and lymph nodes. But, despite this, in most cases, Spitz nevi are considered benign and easily amenable to timely treatment.
Sometimes on the body appear birthmarks with a white border on the edge. They carry two names - Setton's melanocytic nevus and the halo-nevus. Some people have such formations, others may have many, mostly on the back. White fringe, according to scientists, is caused by the fact that the cells in it are destroyed by cells of the immune system. Over the years, Setton's nevuses can discolor completely or completely disappear, leaving a bright spot for memory. In the vast majority of cases, these bordered moles are not dangerous. But scientists have found that their presence, especially in large numbers, may be due to the presence of their owner of diseases such as vitiligo and thyroiditis, or melanoma, which has not yet shown itself.
This birthmark in its dimensions resembles the nevus melanocytic giant. Approximately in a quarter of cases, this pigmentation occurs in the fetus even in the womb. A distinctive feature of Becker's nevuses are:
- growth of hairs on them;
- rash of acne on them;
- increase in size until a certain point, then cease growth and some lightening of the color.
Most often such birthmarks remain with a person for life. They do not represent the dangers, but their owners from time to time should still be shown to the dermatologist.
How Dangerous Birthmarks Are
Some people are sure that moles can eventually develop into melanoma or other types of skin cancer. However, this is wrong. In the vast majority of cases, any birthmark( or nevus melanocytic) does not threaten. To worry and immediately rush to the doctor( dermatologist, oncologist) it is necessary, if suddenly with a birthmark the following changes began to occur:
- its color has changed, anyway, in what direction;
- it has become asymmetric( for example, convex on one side);
- the color or structure of the rim of the birthmark has changed;
- the mole began to ache, itch, bleed;
- sharply increased the size of the birthmark.
In all cases, if the newly born mole differs from the existing one, or the old one suddenly becomes somehow unusual, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible.
What with moles do?
If the nevi are not bothering anything, and if they are located in the safe areas of the skin, they should be watched. If they are located where they can often be traumatized( on the palm, on the soles of the feet, on the neck, on the head, at the waist) or on the face, which causes cosmetic defects, they are recommended to be removed. To entrust such operations is necessary only for doctors - surgeon, dermatologist. It is recommended to remove epidermal nevuses only by surgery. It is performed under local anesthesia, so it is painless. Papillomatous melanocytic nevus of the skin, especially located on the stalk, is sometimes more appropriate to remove with liquid nitrogen. In recent years, laser treatment of moles and their excision with a radio knife have also been successfully applied.
After surgery, the doctor usually sends the removed fragments to a histological examination to be completely sure of the absence of cancer.
It is completely unacceptable to remove nevuses by yourself, folk methods. Especially often people try to get rid of papillomatous nevi on legs, bandaging them with a thread. This leads to a blockage of blood access to the mole, and it can really fall away. But in most cases, this method of "treatment" provokes the development of changes in the cells of the epidermis or dermis and leads to disastrous consequences.