The neurotransmitter is: the definition, functions and features

Neurotransmitters of the brain are substances about which we know little, but which affect the quality of our life, our state of health and our mood. Thanks to them, we can experience a feeling of pleasure or depression, be active or relaxed.

the neurotransmitter is

What are neurotransmitters?

Neurotransmitters are biochemical substances, the main function of which is the transfer of impulses between neurons. By impulse, in simplified language, information is meant, for example, a guide to action if it makes a connection between the neuron of the brain and the neuron of the muscle tissue.

That is, the neurotransmitter is the mediator involved in the transfer of momentum between nerve cells. There are three systems of neurotransmitters:

  • amino acids;
  • peptides;
  • is monamine.

Mediators from each group act on the nervous system in one way or another. For example, exciting it or hindering it.

Exciter mediators

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Effects of

Glutamic acid

Amino acids

Glutamate transmits more than half of all nerve impulses in the brain. Glutamic acid supplies cells with energy, promotes the formation of other substances, including the neurotransmitters

Aspartic acid

Amino acids

Aspartate improves the concentration of attention that is necessary to perceive new information in the learning process. Acid is involved in the process of producing sex hormones and growth hormone



Adrenaline is called a "stress hormone", as it activates the body if necessary: ​​promotes increased heart rate, increases muscle tone, makes a person alert and active, which can lead toanxiety. Also adrenaline has an antiallergic effect



Like adrenaline, norepinephrine helps to survive stress. The substance can contribute to a sense of rage, the absence of fear. In the absence of a stressful situation, norepinephrine maintains vigor.

Norepinephrine allows you to experience a sense of pleasure after a stressful situation - the so-called relief, discharge

Braking neurotransmitters





Amino acid

GABA has a retarding effect on nerve cells. The substance is a glutamate antagonist, their balance in the body is 60/40 in favor of glutamate. With this ratio, a person feels cheerful, but calm.


Amino acid

The inhibitory effect of glycine is due to a decrease in the process of producing "activating" neurotransmitters



Has a sedative, that is calming, hypnotic effect. Histamine is necessary for the body to respond to the penetration of a foreign agent. In other words, histamine causes an allergic reaction if necessary

It is important to understand that a neurotransmitter is a substance that is primarily necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses, that is, information. If we represent two neurons as links in one chain, then the neurotransmitter is a way to connect them together.

Hormones of pleasure

Of all the neurotransmitters, the most familiar are serotonin and dopamine. They are called "pleasure hormones", but what is meant by this term, not everyone knows.

function neurotransmitters

Serotonin really is a pleasure hormone. Its high concentration in the body causes a person a feeling of bliss, relaxation, serene joy. That is, it can be classified as a neurotransmitter with a retarding effect.

Dopamine, by contrast, encourages people to act. But its difference from other exciting neurotransmitters is that it is developed for motivation for activities that will bring a person pleasure in getting the result or on the way to it.

It is important that these neurotransmitter substances are antagonists. When a person's dopamine level rises, serotonin falls. For example, a person plans to go in for sports and believes that after the training will experience a sense of pleasure. The increase in dopamine will prompt a person to immediately begin to work, he will be anxious when delayed.

brain neurotransmitters

After he fulfills the desired( will carry out the planned training), the level of dopamine will drop, and serotonin, on the contrary, will increase. And a person can enjoy the result of the work done.

It is important that the interaction of substances does not work in the reverse order. That is, a low level of serotonin does not entail an increase in dopamine without fail.

Other neurotransmitters

Other hormones and neurotransmitters not listed in the classification above also need to be considered.


Participates in the process of momentum transfer in the muscle tissue


are directly involved in the formation processes of pain, depression, apathy, loss of appetite and other


Has anticonvulsant and kardiotropnoe effect


action similar function of acetylcholine and dopamine


Participates in the transfer of impulses, one of the most common in the body of neurotransmitters

The action of such neurotransmitters asdenozintrifosfat, vasoactive intestinal peptide and tryptamine, it is not yet clear.

The number of neurotransmitters in the body

Understanding what neurotransmitters are, the functions of these substances and their role in the body, it becomes obvious that their number should be balanced in order for a person to feel good.

hormones and neurotransmitters

For example, when serotonin concentration decreases, a person feels unhappy, exhausted, devoid of motivation for any activity. And then the question arises: is it possible to influence the number of neurotransmitters in the body?

Regulation of the number of neurotransmitters

The most common substance, the amount of which the body tries to influence in various ways, is the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Is it possible to increase its amount in the body? Completely. To do this, you can use one of the tips below.

Neurotransmitters preparations

  1. The level of serotonin in the body can be increased with food, while the leader in the list of foods and dishes are bananas, chocolate and citrus.
  2. There is a correlation between physical activity of a person and serotonin. A bad mood can be dispelled with the help of a power load on the muscles. But the important thing is the condition: the very kind of training should be pleasant.
  3. Increased production of serotonin takes place under sunlight, therefore, residents of countries where the number of clear days prevails over cloudy, less often there is depression.
  4. To raise serotonin can massage. In this case, it is not necessary to contact a professional masseur at every decrease in mood. You can help conventional massagers or a simple manual massage, which does not require any skills.

Approximately, the process of increasing acetylcholine also appears. Doctors recommend enriching their diet of B4 vitamins, exercise regularly and engage in "brain training" - that is, resort to interesting intellectual activity.

systems of neurotransmitters

If simple methods do not help raise the level of neurotransmitters, there is a reason to consult a doctor for pharmacological assistance.

Regulation of neurotransmitters with

preparations It is known that many mental and psychosomatic diseases are nothing but unbalanced neurotransmitters. The drugs can compensate for the deficiency of some neurotransmitters and reduce the concentration of others.

But what is important is that all these drugs are categorically forbidden to take on their own. First, all these drugs have a lot of similar effects, and secondly, they require a long course of treatment. And, finally, before prescribing a drug, it is necessary to understand which neurotransmitter is produced in an amount not within the limits of the norm.

substances neuromediators

Thus, the neurotransmitter is a substance whose importance is difficult to underestimate. Knowing the role of mediators in the body, you can understand the reasons for your well-being and work on improving the quality of life by influencing the number of neurotransmitters.