Panic: what is it, the causes and features of manifestation. Panic Attacks: Symptoms and Treatment

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Scientists have long established that almost half of the world's population is subject to a state of panic. What it is, you need to know in order to be able to prevent it. It is not as harmless as it seems at first glance. If you need to understand how to treat a condition such as panic, what this pathology is - you need to find out first.

So, this is an individual or mass fear( horror), which arises under the influence of an obvious or imaginary threat. The condition is accompanied by various somatic impairments in the body's work and has its own symptomatology. Most often, this condition is diagnosed in people aged 20 to 40 years. In most cases, a person tries to avoid those places or factors that triggered the attack. If pathology develops further, then social disadaptation will only increase.

Causes of development of

panic what is

Anxiety, panic, horror arise due to:

  • Strong emotional turmoil or stress with which the nervous system can not cope.
  • Conflicts with people.
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  • Very bright light or loud sound.
  • Admission of hormonal medications.
  • Pregnancy or abortion.
  • Reception of alcoholic beverages.
  • An atmosphere of uncertainty arising in a large group of people.
  • Real or imaginary hazard to human health or life.
  • Need to make decisions or act without a conscious plan in a short time.
  • Mental diseases.
  • Psychological factors( heavy childhood, in which all negative emotions were forced into the subconscious).

The state of panic can occur several times a week or not manifest at all if the human body is not affected. Most often after such an attack a person feels drowsy and some relief.

Panic attack is characterized by the fact that it is very stressful for a person, but does not represent any serious threat to life.

How does the pathological condition manifest?

panic attacks symptoms and treatment

There are such symptoms of panic:

  1. Too fast pulse.
  2. Increased sweating.
  3. Tremor of the hands, internal trembling, chills.
  4. Sensation of the severity of breathing, lack of air, suffocation.
  5. Pain in the heart.
  6. Nausea.
  7. Discomfort in the abdomen.
  8. Dizziness, impaired coordination, pre-occlusive condition.
  9. Feeling of depersonalization.
  10. Fear of committing uncontrolled acts.
  11. Tingling in the limbs or feeling numb in some parts of the body.
  12. Fear of death.
  13. Insomnia.
  14. Confusion.
  15. Rapid urination.
  16. Hearing and vision impairment. Comd in the throat, difficulty swallowing.
  17. Convulsive manifestations.
  18. Violation of the sexual function.
  19. Stiffness of movements or vice versa - increased mobility.

These symptoms usually occur suddenly. However, a panic attack can be a consequence of mental disorders, so it can develop even without any reason.

Components and mechanism for the development of panic attack

Panic( which is dangerous, it is already known) is a serious disorder that includes the following components:

  1. Anxiety( severe fear, unpleasant sensations in the chest and muscle tension).
  2. Vegetative symptoms( lack of air, chills, increased blood pressure).
  3. Other signs( dizziness, a sense of disorientation in the environment).

The duration of the panic attack varies: from a few minutes to an hour. Subsequently, a person has a feeling of weakness and fatigue throughout the rest of the day.

If such attacks are observed too often, the doctor can diagnose a mental disorder in the patient. That is, people in this case live with a constant expectation of a new attack.

Anxiety, panic is an unpleasant condition that develops in stages. The mechanism of its appearance is as follows:

  1. First, a person falls into a stressful situation, which contributes to the release of a large amount of adrenaline into the blood.
  2. Then the blood vessels narrow, and the heart rate increases.
  3. Now there is a rapid increase in respiration, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.

At the same time, the more panic develops, the horror, the stronger the symptoms, so it turns out to be a vicious circle. This is typical for individual cases of a pathological condition.

Mass panic develops as follows:

  • First there is an incentive.
  • Next, individual people begin to react emotionally to him and spread panic in the crowd.
  • Emotionally infected people begin to maintain a pathological condition.
  • There is a cry, a flight in which people can perish. And screaming can only strengthen the panic state.
  • Restoration of calm, apathy as a result of loss of strength.

That is, this condition can be extremely dangerous for human life.

Classification of Panic Attacks

mass panic

Panic behavior can be classified as follows:

1. By human coverage:

  • Individual. It is typical for only one person, for example, for a student who passes the exam, or a woman who is about to give birth to a baby.
  • Bulk. In this case, many people immediately experience this pathological condition. Provoke its various natural disasters( fire, flood) or social factors.

2. By nature:

  • Behavioral. Actions in this case are meaningful, but dictated by emotions. And not always they are an adequate response to the threat. The development and attenuation of such a panic attack occurs gradually. It is characteristic of it that it arises in some social groups or among the population. In the crowd, it usually does not develop.
  • Affective. It is typical for the group, which was quickly captured by a strong sense of horror and fear. At first, panic moods are noted in individual people, who can quickly instill something. Then this mood spreads to the whole crowd. In this case, the group notes the state of hysteria, psychosis. Such panic is considered very dangerous, since the crowd practically does not control their actions, and perceives reality inadequately.

3. On the forms of manifestation:

  • Panic mood. This condition is inherent not only to individuals, but also to entire strata of society. The behavior of people in this case is difficult to predict, since it is capable of changing random stimuli.
  • Mass exodus. This is an extremely dangerous state, for which the flight of people from an imaginary or real danger is characteristic. And it is often unconscious.
  • Economic panic. It occurs mainly on banking exchanges during the financial crisis, rising prices, as well as inflation.

Whatever the panic attacks, the symptoms and treatment of this condition are determined by the physician. Independently with this problem you can not cope.

Features of diagnostics of pathology


It should be remembered that any insignificant factor in a sensitive person can cause panic, that such a disease should be diagnosed differentially, since it can be part of another anxiety disorder. So, the definition of the disease is made on the following parameters:

  1. At the time of an attack the patient has at least 4 symptoms listed above.
  2. The development of this condition is unexpected, and it can not be provoked by increased attention from other people.
  3. There are at least 4 attacks per month.

In order to be able to reliably diagnose, you need to:

  • Panic attacks or attacks of autonomic anxiety arose at least once a month. In this case, there is not necessarily the presence of circumstances that are not related to a real or objective threat.
  • The pathological state was not limited to predictable situations.
  • There were quiet periods between panic attacks, when anxiety symptoms are not observed or are of minimal severity.

The main methods of treatment

symptoms of panic

A person with a weak nervous system, high sensitivity to external psychological stimuli can panic. What to do in this case, it is important to know in order to reduce the negative consequences of pathology.

In most cases, therapy is performed on an outpatient basis. Only extremely severe forms of pathology require hospitalization. Naturally, the treatment of each patient must be individual and complex.

It includes:

  • Emotional support for the patient.
  • Physiotherapy methods.
  • Psychotherapy and other ways of treatment.
  • Taking medications.

Features of drug treatment PA

panic behavior

Panic( what is it, it is already clear) requires the intervention of doctors. Often for the use of drugs used drugs, which in pharmacies today is quite a lot. They help to reduce the number of attacks, although each drug has its side effects, which can worsen the patient's condition.

To calm the patient, such medicines are used:

  1. Tincture of valerian, motherwort or peony.
  2. "Valocordin"( provides a sedative effect).
  3. More serious drugs: "Diazepam", "Temazepam"( the effect comes in 15-20 minutes).These drugs are used to stop the attack.
  4. Antidepressants, tranquilizers, nootropics, beta-blockers can be used to control pathology. Dosage, as well as the duration of therapy in this case is strictly determined by the doctor.

Psychotherapy in the treatment of pathology

This method of combating panic attacks is the main and most appropriate. There are such psychotherapeutic methods of therapy:

  • Cognitive-behavioral( most used).Here the specialist gradually tries to change the attitude of the person to the problem. An explanation is given for the mechanism of development of the pathological condition. That is, the therapist should teach the patient not to be alarmed by anxious symptoms, immediately not panic.
  • Hypnosis. The advantage of this technique is a quick result. Here, in general, the suggestion is used. However, not every patient lends itself to hypnosis.
  • Family psychotherapy. In this case, the work is conducted with all the relatives of the patient, and not only with him.
  • Psychoanalysis. The disadvantage of this method is its duration. That is, treatment can be done for more than one year.
  • Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Here the expert tries to change the person's view of those circumstances that cause a panic attack.
  • Body-oriented psychotherapy. The emphasis in this case is on the patient's bodily sensations. To achieve a positive effect, breathing exercises, as well as relaxation and muscle tension techniques, are used.

Other treatments for

state of panic

If, for some reason, several negative factors have joined together that cause fear in a person, they may panic. What is this, probably, every second inhabitant of the planet knows.

To combat this pathology, not only medicines are used, but also physiotherapy procedures:

  1. Swimming in the pool.
  2. Massage with aromatic oils that help to relax a person.
  3. Sanatorium treatment.
  4. Acupuncture.

Additional treatments are:

  • Autotraining. They help restore the normal functionality of the autonomic nervous system, suppress negative emotions. In this case, special exercises of respiratory gymnastics, tension and relaxation of the muscular system are used. In addition, an important part of the training is the pronunciation of verbal formulas that have a certain sequence.
  • Yoga.

Prevention of pathology

In order that panic attacks do not recur anew, it is necessary to follow such recommendations:

  • It is necessary to actively combat increased anxiety and depression. For this, not only medications are needed, but also counseling of a psychologist( psychotherapist).
  • With the help of traditional and non-traditional methods it is necessary to develop stress resistance. Relaxation, meditation, phytotherapy, self-control practices will help.
  • It is desirable to learn to live positively, to assess any situation adequately. There are no desperate situations.
  • Periodically, you need to give vent to negative emotions.
  • It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle: eat right, exercise, rest properly.
  • Do not fixate on those mistakes that were committed in the past. You have to try to increase your self-esteem.

That's all the information on the topic. We examined panic attacks, symptoms and treatment of this condition. It is very important to take care not only of one's physical, but also mental health, because in the human body everything is interconnected. It is best not to allow panic disorder. Be healthy!