How long does the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis last?
A tick-borne encephalitis is a dangerous and common disease. The incubation period, the symptoms and treatment of ailment - all this deserves special attention, since the disease is a danger not only for the health and well-being of the patient, but also for his life. Therapeutic events should begin as early as possible.
Caution: tick-borne encephalitis!
The success of treatment largely depends on how quickly the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis passes and the disease manifests itself. From the moment of infection a person after all can and not assume that he is sick and needs help.
Today questions about this disease are acute and require immediate answers. In particular, what is this disease and what consequences can it threaten a person? How long does the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis continue and what actions need to be taken first? Answers should be known to all modern residents, since each of us is at risk( without exaggeration!).
It should be noted that tick-borne encephalitis can occur in any region of Russia, but in some geographic regions, statistics indicate a whole outbreak of viral pathology. Its carriers are representatives of bloodsucking arthropods - ixodid mites. The virus penetrating the human body reaches the nerve cells and the cerebral cortex, rapidly attacking the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The absence of timely treatment in most cases is fraught with a fatal outcome of the ill.
Types of viral infection of encephalitis
To date, scientists know of several forms of the virus that are spread by insects among humans and animals:
- Western-type encephalitis( represents the easiest form of the disease having a wavy course).
- Encephalitis of the Far Eastern type( a serious infectious disease, which is the most virulent of the three).
- Encephalitis of the Siberian type( also threatens the patient's life, but in comparison with the previous one has a lesser degree of virulence).
A characteristic feature of the damaging microorganism can be called that it settles in the motor structures of the nervous system. As long as the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis lasts, the person does not have any symptoms. Sown in the cell structure, the virus can stay there for a long time and in no way provoke a protective immune response.
How does the infection occur?
So, back to the carriers. As already mentioned, they are mites. Especial danger from the point of view of epidemiologists is represented by European and taiga individuals. It is these subspecies of arthropods that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. The mechanism of infection is simple:
- The parasite gets on the skin, not protected by clothing.
- Bites the tissue, in order to get drunk blood.
- injects saliva, which helps to anesthetize the bite site. This is the most insidious ability of ticks, because of it a person can not immediately come to his senses and understand that the parasite has already penetrated to it under the skin.
- Along with saliva, pathogenic particles enter the bloodstream, from this moment the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis begins, the signs of which are completely absent.
The greatest danger to humans is born by female ticks. They can live "secretly" on the body of the host for several days, unlike males, who are saturated with the blood of a person instantly and drop out often before the bitten master in general notices their presence or traces. It is believed that the activity of these arthropods is seasonal. Epidemiologists note that the peak incidence falls on the beginning and end of summer.
How is the disease transmitted to humans?
An important point in studying the issues related to tick-borne encephalitis is the probable pathways of transmission of a viral infection. As a rule, people are infected directly from the carrier, that is, when they get into the body of a tick. But you can get infected with such a dangerous disease in other ways.
Immediately it is worth paying attention to the fact that for people who are absolutely safe a person who has caught tick-borne encephalitis. The incubation period or phase of acute manifestation of the disease does not make a person a hidden threat to others, if only because the airborne infection does not pass the infection.
What can not be said about the alimentary method of transmission of the virus, not to mention the direct contact with blood. For example, you can get infected in such ways:
- eating meat, milk, eggs, cottage cheese, etc., produced by an encephalitis-infected animal,
- in utero - from mother to fetus( in case of a bite during pregnancy).
Features of the virus are its endurance and vitality. Pathogenic microorganisms remain intact and unharmed even at incredibly low temperatures.
Features of the incubation period and its duration
To understand the incubation period in tick-borne encephalitis, it is necessary to consider its symptoms and basic manifestations. In most cases, the latent phase of the disease lasts from 1 to 2 weeks. However, these data are averaged. In fact, the first signs can appear and the next day after infection, although the medical practice knows quite a few cases when the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis lasted about a month. Diagnosis in this case, specialists manage to deliver timely, and therefore, much earlier to begin treatment, which in itself gives a good chance to the patient for the probability of a speedy recovery.
At the moment, doctors conditionally divide the course of the disease into several phases:
- The first stage( latent) completely lacks any signs of infection. This is the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis.
- Next comes the phase of intoxication, as the virus, having got into the blood, managed to move to the nerve fibers.
- The third stage is the completion of the "silent" stage, the signs of the disease are quite significant. Particularly pronounced are violations of the central nervous system.
- During the treatment begins to form the immune system to the disease. The fourth stage of the disease is completed by recovery.
Symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis
So, in the second stage, the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis passes into the active phase. Typical sensations during illness, as patients note, are:
- high body temperature( up to 40 degrees);
- nausea, vomiting;
- general weakness of the body, there is always a feeling of fatigue;
- disorders of the "sleep-wake" cycle.
However, this state can not be called stable. The disease progresses particularly rapidly, patients are increasingly finding themselves soreness in the muscles of the whole body. Especially musculature and ligaments of the upper trunk and extremities suffer.
Tick-borne encephalitis in a child
The incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis in children proceeds in much the same way as in adult patients. It lasts 7-14 days as well. But the weak organism of the child is not able to keep the virus inside of itself for long, the latent stage of the illness does not last long. Symptomatic in childhood is more pronounced. To the listed signs in children the following clinical picture is added:
- the child can rave;
- his mind is confused;
- syncope occurs;
- there is hyperemia and swelling of the skin.
On the basis of the disease, it is possible to determine the form in which tick-borne encephalitis occurs. The incubation period( symptoms, manifesting, indicate that the disease is progressing) ends, and then it is important to accurately establish the species belonging of the disease.
In what forms can the disease occur?
The most common and less dangerous form of the disease manifests itself with the symptoms described above. It is a febrile form, however, apart from it, there may be others:
- is a meningic;
- is meningoencephalic;
The two-wave course of the disease is the most common scenario, according to which tick-borne encephalitis develops. The incubation period in this case concludes immediately with the manifestation of the first wave of fever. Often it is mistaken for a cold or respiratory disease. In fact, besides high body temperature and general weakening of the body, there are no symptoms. When the fever disappears, a person who is sure of full recovery from a "cold" does not take any action.
Body temperature can be normal until the onset of a second wave of the disease, which will also be accompanied by a fever. But only this time the brain cell lesions will begin to manifest themselves to the fullest.
Treatment during the incubation period - high chances of success
Tick-borne encephalitis can manifest itself in completely different ways. The incubation period after a bite can last long enough or vice versa, it all depends on many factors: the protective antiviral forces of the body, the presence of concomitant diseases, etc. In most cases, it is not possible to diagnose the illness in time. In fact, the whole fault is the long incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis, which, sitting in the human body, but without showing itself, does not allow the patient to take timely measures.
In any case, with the first symptoms, even with those that, as it would seem at first glance, do not look intimidating, it is necessary to get poisoned to the doctor. Especially if during the last month contact with the arthropod was recorded by the person himself.
Where lies the viral infection?
From all of the above, it is easy to guess what exactly causes tick-borne encephalitis. The causes of the disease lie in the bite of an insect-parasite. In order to prevent the most dangerous infection, you need to know about the prevention and the rules of behavior in the case of a tick bite.
First, walks in the woods or in open areas with high grass vegetation potentially carry danger. Therefore, every time when returning, it is necessary to revise things for the presence of an ixodid tick.
Secondly, when it is detected, it is necessary to immediately go to a medical institution, where the surgeon can professionally help get rid of the bloodsucker. You can not in any case take any action and yourself, using dirty hands with the help of some non-sterile improvised items to try to pull the parasite out. The body of the tick can be easily obtained, but it is extremely important that the head be removed.
Thirdly, it is undesirable to discard the parasite extracted from the skin. It must be delivered to the laboratory in order to establish its contamination. If the virus is confirmed in its saliva, it will be possible to start treatment in the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis. The second disease, also affecting the central nervous system, is provoked by a tick and has a rather severe course.
Complications due to late treatment of
The most insidious stage is the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis. Treatment is delayed, no action is taken, which means that the disease can progress peacefully, and nothing in it is not going to interfere. Only the complications that provoke the ailment can not only radically change the patient's way of life, but also lead to disability or, if worse, to a lethal outcome.
It is believed that the most favorable prognosis for recovery in patients with meningeal and febrile forms of the disease. The entire therapeutic course can proceed smoothly, while the patient's condition will remain stable. A full recovery can be achieved after a month of treatment.
Other forms of the disease carry a threat to the life of the patient. In many cases, epilepsy develops. Complications of encephalitis significantly affect the work and condition of the brain. First, there is swelling, which can potentially lead to coma and death. When the virus attacks the nerves in the cranium, irreversible processes occur( paralysis, speech disorders, strabismus and swallowing problems).In almost 90% of cases, patients who have experienced similar complications become disabled.
Tick-borne encephalitis therapy: folk remedies or medications?
When the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis is over and the disease begins to manifest itself, it is important to begin treatment immediately. It is worth saying that self-medication is doomed to failure. Why risk your health and life if, turning to a professional, you can cope with the disease without waiting for negative consequences?
Tick-borne encephalitis is one of those diseases where alternative, folk medicine is completely powerless. Treatment of an illness usually takes place within the walls of a hospital facility. Hospitalization, bed rest, diet menu and maximum peace of mind are the main and mandatory conditions of therapy.
What medications should I take?
The medication course begins with the administration of a specific serum immunoglobulin. Adapting the drug with antiviral drugs, the most effective in this situation are considered to be interferon-containing.
The next necessary group of drugs are inducers of antiviral drugs, among which doctors most often prefer Neovir, Amiksin and Cycloferon.
It is equally important that the patient undergoes complete detoxification of the body. In addition, in parallel, anti-inflammatory drugs can be prescribed, as well as improving trophic nerve fibers and the rate of circulation.
On average, the treatment course lasts about a month. After discharge, the person remains on a dispensary record with a neurologist and infectious disease specialist. Once in the next six months, the patient must undergo a complete examination. Periodic diagnosis will avoid the development of chronic encephalitis. In this form, the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis in humans is absent, the disease manifests itself at the stage of exacerbation. Symptom, as a rule, remains independent of the therapy. The danger of the chronic form of the disease is the high probability of complications in the form of paresis, paralysis, epilepsy, etc.
Vaccine against encephalitis
Special attention should be paid to the prevention of this serious disease, which is no exception to the rules: it, as well as other ailments, it is easier to prevent than treat. In addition to the classical methods that protect the human body from biting( proper wearing of clothes in the forest, careful examination of the body for the presence of sucking parasites, use of external insect repellent agents, etc.), medicinal preventive measures are also considered effective.
First of all it is a question of vaccination against the disease. Vaccination injection, containing a scanty dose of the pathogen, is aimed at activating and enhancing the work of immunity. When ingested, the vaccine contributes to the production of the necessary antibodies.
Most often, people who live in potentially dangerous geographical bands, densely populated by the vectors of the disease, are being vaccinated. However, the vaccine will last for three years, after the expiry of the term, the manipulation is repeated.
Prophylaxis during the incubation period
Often precautionary measures are taken during the incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis. Prophylaxis is the administration of a specific immunoglobulin. In the first three days after the bite, when the disease is at the latent stage of its development, it is much easier to prevent further progression of the infection.
In addition, drugs are actively used that are used both to prevent the onset of infection, and as an emergency antiviral action. For adults, "Yodantipirin" is considered an effective tool, and "Anaferon" for children. In any case, the prescribing of medicines should be performed by the attending physician, it is strictly forbidden to take medicines independently.