Veins of head and neck - anatomy
As you know, for normal operation, the brain needs a certain amount of oxygen, glucose and other substances. This explains the presence of a developed network of arteries that carry blood to the tissues. Timely outflow of fluid is very important, so it is worth studying the main veins of the head and neck.
Many people are interested in more information. What are the features of the anatomy of the head and neck? Which vessels provide blood from different parts of the brain? When do doctors recommend ultrasound veins? What are the complications of a violation of normal blood flow in the veins? Answers to these questions will be useful to many readers.
Anatomy of the head and neck: brief information
For a start, it is worth considering the general information. Before studying the veins of the head and neck, you can see the anatomical features.
As you know, the head is located on the top of the spinal column. The occipital bone of the skull is articulated with the atlas( the first cervical vertebra) in the region of the occipital foramen. The spinal cord passes through this opening - the structure of the skeleton ensures the integrity of the central nervous system.
The skeleton of the head and neck consists of the skull, cervical spine, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone. The skull itself is conventionally divided into parts:
- the brain part( consists of the frontal, occipital latticed, wedge-shaped, as well as paired temporal and parietal bones);
- front part( consists of a vomer, lower jaw, as well as paired zygomatic, palatine, maxillary, lacrimal, nasal bones).
The skeleton is covered with muscles that provide flexion, rotation and extension of the neck. Of course, considering the anatomical features, we can not fail to mention the nerves, the brain, glands, blood vessels and other structures. By the way, veins of the head and neck we will consider more carefully.
Internal jugular vein
This is a fairly large vessel that collects blood from virtually all areas of the neck and head. It begins at the level of the jugular aperture and is a direct extension of the sigmoid sinus.
A little below the source of the vessel is a small formation with dilated walls - this is the upper bulb of the jugular vein. This vessel goes along the internal carotid artery, and then passes behind the common carotid artery( this vessel lies in the same fascial vagina as the carotid artery, the vagus nerve).Slightly higher than the place where the jugular vein merges with the subclavian, there is another expansion with two valves - the lower bulb.
In the sigmoid sinus, in which, in fact, this vessel begins, blood flows from the entire system of the sinuses of the dura mater. In turn, they carry blood to the brain veins, as well as the vessels of the labyrinth and the eye veins.
These are wide vessels with thin walls. Valves in them are absent. Vessels begin in the area of the spongy substance of the cranial vault and collect blood from the inner surface of the bones. Inside the cranial cavity, these veins communicate with the sinuses of the hard shell and meningeal vessels. Outside the skull, these vessels connect to the veins of the outer covers.
Frontal veins are the largest diploid vessels - they flow into the sagittal sinus. This group includes the anterior temporal vein, which carries blood to the wedge-parietal sinus. There is also a posterior temporal and occipital diplic vein that emerge into emissary vessels.
Features of the blood flow through the emissary vessels
The emsarine veins provide the junction of the sinuses of the hard shell of the brain with the vessels located in the tissues outside the skull. By the way, these vessels pass through small bony valves and exit the skull, where they communicate with other vessels.
- A dark emissary vein that connects the superior sagittal sinus with the outer vessels. Their skulls go out through the parietal opening.
- The esophagus emissary vein emerges through the opening of the mastoid process. It connects the sigmoid sinus with the occipital vein.
- The condylar vein emerges from the skull through the condyle canal( it is part of the occipital bone).
Brief description of upper and lower ocular veins
The upper eye vein is larger. It includes vessels, in which blood flows from the tissues of the forehead, nose, upper eyelid, shells and muscles of the eyeball. Approximately at the medial angle of the eye, this vessel communicates with the facial vein via anastomosis.
The lower vein drops blood from the vessels of the lower eyelid and adjacent muscles of the eye. This vessel passes along the bottom wall of the orbit, almost under the optic nerve, and then flows into the upper eye vein, which carries blood to the cavernous sinus.
The internal jugular vein is large enough and collects blood from a variety of vessels.
- Pharyngeal veins that collect blood from the pharyngeal plexus. In this vascular structure, blood is collected from the tissues of the pharynx, the auditory tube, the occipital part of the hard shell of the brain, and the soft palate. By the way, the pharyngeal vessels are small and do not have valves.
- The lingual vein, which is formed by the sublingual, deep and paired dorsal veins of the tongue. These structures collect blood from the tissues of the tongue.
- Thyroid vein( upper), which collects blood from the sternocleidomastoid and upper laryngeal veins.
- The facial vein communicates with the internal jugular at the level of the hyoid bone. This vessel collects blood from virtually all facial tissues. It falls into small vessels, including the chin, supraorbital, angular, external palatal and deep vein of the face. Here blood flows from the paired vessels, including the upper and lower labial, external nasal, as well as the veins of the parotid gland, the upper and lower eyelids.
- The submandibular vein is considered to be a fairly large vessel. It begins in the region of the auricle, passes through the parotid gland, and then flows into the internal jugular vein. This vessel collects blood from the pterygoid plexus, middle ear veins, as well as medium, superficial and deep temporal vessels, temporomandibular joint vein, anterior ear veins.
Features of the blood flow in the external jugular vein
This vessel is formed by the fusion of two tributaries, namely:
- of the anterior inflow( it forms an anastomosis with the submandibular vein);
- posterior( this influx collects blood from the occipital and posterior ear veins).
External jugular vein is formed approximately at the anterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. From here it follows the front surface of the muscle, perforates the plate of the cervical fascia and flows into the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. This vessel has two paired valves. By the way, he also collects blood from the suprascapular and transverse veins of the neck.
Anterior jugular vein
Considering the superficial veins of the head and neck, it is impossible not to mention the anterior jugular vein. It is formed from small vessels that collect blood from the tissues of the chin area, it follows down the front of the neck, then penetrates into the space above the breastbone.
At this point, the left and right veins are connected by transverse anastomosis, resulting in the formation of a jugular venous arch. On either side of the arc, the arc falls into the external jugular veins( left and right, respectively).
The subclavian vein is an unpaired vessel that begins from the axillary vein. This vessel passes along the surface of the anterior staircase. It starts from approximately at the level of the first rib, and ends behind the sternoclavicular joint. It is here that he falls into the internal jugular vein. At the beginning and end of the subclavian vessel are located valves that regulate the flow of blood.
By the way, this vein does not have permanent inflows. Most often, it receives blood from the dorsal scapula and thoracic venous vessels.
As you can see, the tissues of the neck and head have a highly developed venous network, which ensures a timely outflow of venous blood. Nevertheless, if there is a violation of the work of certain organs, the natural blood flow may be disturbed.
When is an ultrasound required?
You already know how the veins of the head and neck work. Of course, the violation of outflow of blood is fraught with stagnant phenomena and dangerous complications, which primarily affect the work of the central nervous system. If there are suspicions of various circulatory disorders, doctors recommend that they undergo examinations. And ultrasound veins to date is one of the simplest, accessible and informative tests.
When are patients sent to such a procedure? The indications are as follows:
- recurrent dizziness;
- frequent syncope;
- increased cholesterol levels along with hypertension;
- permanent weakness, rapid fatigue;
- suspicion of the presence of tumors, atherosclerotic plaques, thrombi and other formations that violate the permeability of blood vessels;The
- procedure is performed prior to surgery, as well as during any therapy, in order to monitor the effect of the treatment.
Of course, in order to make an accurate diagnosis, further tests and laboratory tests are performed. It is worth noting that most often stagnant phenomena and disorders of outflow of blood are associated with thrombosis and atherosclerosis.
Description of procedure
For the diagnosis of various vascular diseases, the duplex scanning technique is used. This ultrasound procedure allows you to check the speed and nature of the blood flow in the veins, as well as visualize them and identify the causes of impairment. For example, this procedure makes it possible to diagnose thrombosis, narrowing of the vessel, thinning of its wall, widening of veins, etc.
The procedure is absolutely painless and lasts about half an hour. During this time, the doctor leads around the neck, occiput, temples and closed eyes with a special sensor that directs the ultrasonic waves, and then catches and fixes their reflection from the moving erythrocytes.
The veins of the head and neck perform very important functions, so their condition is worth following. If you have any anxiety symptoms, you need to see a specialist and get tested. Diseases diagnosed in the early stages of development are much easier to treat.