Ultrasound of bile ducts: preparation, decoding

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Ultrasound of bile ducts is a method of diagnosis, during which the skin is not affected by needles or various surgical instruments. It allows you to find out very accurate information about the state of the gallbladder and its ducts. Typically, the study of this organ is carried out as part of a comprehensive study of the abdominal organs and especially often in conjunction with ultrasound of the liver.
biliary tract

Indications for diagnostic

The ultrasound method for diagnosis of the gallbladder can be prescribed by the gastroenterologist in the following situations:

  • multiple painful sensations on the right side of the hypochondrium, which can only be removed with the help of painkillers;
  • discomfort and a feeling of heaviness in the liver;
  • smack of bitterness in the mouth;
  • yellow skin and outer mucous membranes;
  • irregular power supply;
  • abuse of fatty, smoked, spicy, fried foods;
  • too frequent application of low-calorie diets;
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  • too long taking medications;
  • abnormal indicators in laboratory blood analysis( AST, ALT, bilirubin and others);
  • dyskinesia biliary tract;
  • obesity;
  • cholelithiasis;
  • abdominal trauma;
  • in the appointment and selection of female hormonal contraceptives;
  • n a process of monitoring the state of the biliary tract in the presence of tumors;
  • monitoring of the effective action of therapy.

dyskinesia of bile ducts uzi

Contraindications to the

study This study is a completely safe procedure. Therefore, the only contraindication to the use of ultrasound of bile ducts is severe damage to the skin in the field of examination. For example, burns, wounds, infectious lesions.

Preparation for ultrasound diagnosis of the gallbladder

Preparation for this process of diagnosing bile ducts is for the most part the same as the preparation program for ultrasound of other abdominal organs.
A few days before the diagnosis should be abandoned the use of alcohol and fatty foods, as well as products that stimulate the formation of gases in the intestine, which include:

  • raw fruits, vegetables and berries;
  • lactic acid products;
  • from grain bread and other products from yeast dough;
  • beans;
  • strong tea, coffee and carbonated drinks.

Patients often ask what to eat before the procedure.

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The following products are allowed to be eaten:

  • porridges boiled on water;
  • low-fat cottage cheese;
  • beef or chicken;
  • steam or boiled fish;
  • eggs boiled "soft-boiled".

During the meal, it is necessary to use various enzyme products( Creon, Festal, Mezim) and medications that reduce flatulence( Smecta, Espumizan, Activated Carbon, Motilium), but not more oftenthree times a day.

In the evening before the procedure of ultrasound of bile ducts it is recommended to observe the following rules:

  • Extreme meal should be easy and satisfying, for example, you can eat porridge cooked on water without sugar, but not later than 19 pm.
  • It should be natural to empty the intestines. If there are difficulties, then you need to use light laxatives or microclysters.

This is not the whole preparation for ultrasound of the bile ducts.

In the morning before the procedure:

  • if the study is scheduled for the first half of the day, then you should refrain from breakfast;
  • if the procedure was set for the 2nd half of the day, then a light breakfast is allowed - a cracker and tea( the interval between the study and breakfast should be at least 6 hours);
  • can not be consumed a few hours before the diagnosis, so you should consult with a specialist about taking essential medicines;
  • also can not use chewing gum and smoking.

It should be remembered that the endo-ultrasound of the bile ducts should be performed strictly on an empty stomach, because in this case the gallbladder is filled with bile as much as possible, because of which its increase occurs. If you drink even a little liquid, then the bile-excreting processes will start, and the bladder will decrease in size, which greatly complicates the examination.

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Method of conducting the

examination With dyskinesia of the bile ducts, the ultrasound of all internal organs of the digestive tract will be the best option. For this reason, it is advisable to perform the procedure at a specialized medical center and to be monitored by one attending physician.

Simple ultrasound diagnosis of the gallbladder

Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts is performed using external sensors on the anterior abdominal wall. The patient needs to lie on his back and get rid of clothing in the upper abdomen. After that, the doctor applies a special water-soluble gel to the sensor in order to eliminate the air layer and to facilitate the passage of ultrasonic waves when contacting the skin.

If the bottom of the bile ducts has covered the intestinal loops, the doctor will ask the patient to take a deep breath and hold the breath for as long as possible, or roll over to the left side.

To identify pathological inclusions in the biliary tract( sand, stones), the patient may be asked to stand up and make several inclinations forward.

Preparation for ultrasound of the liver and biliary tract should be carried out without fail.

Ultrasonic diagnostics of bile ducts with detection of

function. Another name for the diagnostic method is ultrasound with choleretic breakfast or . The cholescintigraphy is dynamic.

This procedure allows you to determine what the contractile function of the gall bladder is in real time.

After the first procedure for diagnosing bile ducts on an empty stomach, the patient should take a test breakfast of two boiled( or raw) yolks and 250 grams of cottage cheese( or sour cream).Also in the form of cholagogue breakfast, you can use a solution of sorbitol.

After this, the ultrasound should be repeated at intervals of 5, 10 and 15 minutes.

Ultrasonic diagnostics with a distant gallbladder

Another name for the procedure is dynamic echo choledochography.
uzi bile ducts preparation

First, the doctor evaluates the diameter and condition of the bile duct( strictly on an empty stomach).After this, the patient is given a nutritional load in the form of sorbitol dissolved in water, and then again re-diagnosed after 0.5-1 hour.

In the process of research, the physician should record the patient's complaints about the appearance of pain, build-up, intensity, absence or duration.

Decoding of ultrasound of bile duct

During the study, the doctor should evaluate the following data:

  • location and mobility of the gallbladder;
  • thickness, size and shape of the walls of the organ;
  • presence of neoplasms, polyps and stones;
  • contractile function of the gallbladder;
  • diameter of bile ducts.

The normal size of the gallbladder is:

  • width of about 4 cm;
  • length in the range from 8 to 10 cm;
  • transverse dimension from 3 to 3.5 cm;
  • volume of 30-70 cu.cm;
  • diameter of the common bile duct about 7 mm;
  • and e more than 4 mm wall thickness;
  • the internal diameter of the ducts of this organ should not exceed 3 mm.

The gallbladder should have an oval or pear-shaped shape, clear contours. It is allowed to separate the bottom of the bladder by 1-1.5 cm from under the edge of the liver.

What does ultrasound show bile ducts?

Thanks to the ultrasound examination of this body can determine a variety of diseases. uzi biliary tract decoding

The following data indicate acute cholecystitis:

  • multiple internal partitions;
  • wall of the gallbladder is thicker than 4 mm;
  • organ increased in size;
  • in the pancreatic artery there is increased blood flow.

The chronic form of this disease can be determined by the following symptoms:

  • contours are fuzzy and blurred;
  • gallbladder decreased in size;
  • body walls are condensed, deformed and become thicker;
  • in the lumen of the bladder can see small inclusions.

Dyskinesia of the bile ducts is determined by the presence of one or more constrictions in the gallbladder, as well as finding a tightness and an increase in the tone of the walls of the organ.

For the presence of of the gallstone disease, the following pathologies indicate:

  • contour irregularity and thickening of the organ wall;
  • presence in the cavity of the gallbladder stones, which, when the position of the body changes, move;
  • presence behind the stone of the dark section;
  • presence in the urine sediment of bilirubin crystals.

It is worth remembering that ultrasound does not show stones of small dimensions. They can be identified by the expansion of the bile duct just above the blockage.

The presence of biliary tract polyps by the presence of rounded formations on the wall of the organ under investigation. If the polyp has a diameter of more than 11 cm, then there is a risk of malignant formation. If during the repeated carrying out of ultrasonic diagnostics an accelerated growth of a polyp is recorded, then it will be said that the process is of a malignant nature.

that shows uzi biliary tract

Available tumors are determined by the presence of formations of at least 1-1.5 cm in size, deformed contours of the organ being examined, and also the overly thickened wall of the gallbladder.

Any congenital pathology can be identified by:

  • ectopic localization of the gallbladder;
  • absence of bile ducts;
  • additional gallbladder;
  • protrusion of the wall.

All pathologies detected with ultrasound of bile ducts require clarification and dynamic observation. For this reason, after the first procedure of the examination, the doctor appoints a second one - in two or three weeks.

It is necessary to repeat the test regularly, even if no abnormalities were detected.