Getschinson's teeth: causes, description of shape and structure, photo

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The teeth of Getschinson, Pfluger and Fournier are a type of tooth enamel hypoplasia. This disease appears, as a rule, because of mechanical trauma to the follicles or when the infection penetrates the rudiments of the teeth. The most common cause of development is the incomplete development and even the absence of tooth tissue. Let's find out how the teeth of Getschinson develop.


Causes of hypoplasia

Often the disease occurs due to congenital pathology, although it develops only after the birth of a child. Because of what the teeth of Getschinson develop? The causes of the following:

  • Conflict of the Rh factor of blood of the child and mother.
  • Infectious diseases transferred by a woman in the first 3 months of pregnancy.
  • Strong and persistent toxicosis during the 2nd and 3rd trimester.
  • Injuries received during labor.
  • Births that occurred before 40 weeks( premature).
  • Rickets.
  • Child's dystrophy( with poor appetite and other causes).
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
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  • Metabolic disorders in the body.
  • Somatic diseases.
  • Incorrect work of the brain in the first year of life.
  • Infectious diseases transmitted by a child in utero or after birth until 6 months.
  • Jaw and face injuries.

Symptoms of the development of the disease

Doctors divide hypoplasia into two main types. The reasons for their appearance are the same, but the symptoms are different. Let's look at how the systemic and local type of disease.

Hypoplasia system

  • All teeth are affected.
  • On the front surface there are spots of white or yellow-brown color.
  • The enamel is thin or completely absent.
  • The layer covering the tooth core is not fully developed.

ghetchinson triad

Hypoplasia local

  • Several teeth are affected.
  • Inflammation may occur due to the fact that deep layers are damaged.
  • Constructive defects appear on the teeth.
  • On the affected teeth, the enamel may be missing partially or completely.

In addition to the two main forms of the disease, doctors also distinguish 3 special forms.

These include:

  • Getschinson's teeth. Usually change the shape of a few or all of the teeth. They take a round or oval appearance, and their cutting edges become concave and resemble the crescent moon.
  • Teeth of Pfluger. This form externally strongly resembles the disease described by Getchinson. The only difference is the appearance of the cutting edge, which looks the same as a healthy person.
  • Teeth of Fournier. Constant teeth, namely "sixes", have the form of a cone. From the root they are wide and taper downwards. On their surface there are tubercles, which almost do not stand out. Often this form develops with syphilis( intrauterine).

photo of teeth

The Gatchinson's triad is determined by the following characteristics:

  • Deformation of a pair or all of the teeth due to the influence of the spirochete pale on the rudiments.
  • Parenchymal keratitis.

In most cases, patients develop a deafness. This is due to the degeneration of the nerve( pre-vertebral cochlear), which is located in the stony part of the bone of the temporal lobe and is called the syphilitic labyrinth. The triad is often a sign of syphilis( congenital) at a late stage of development. Patients have one or two symptoms, but all of them are extremely rare. On the photos of teeth you can see what the pathology looks like.

Degrees of disease

There are 3 degrees of the disease. They vary in complexity and form.

  • The initial degree of hypoplasia is manifested in the form of small pigment spots located on the surface of all or a few teeth.
  • The average degree of hypoplasia is manifested when convex or concave furrows appear on the enamel surface, as well as pits. Often against this background, the Hetchinson triad develops.
  • A strong degree of hypoplasia is observed when the deformation of the tooth occurs or the enamel is erased.

Treatment is performed at any degree, but the methods of therapy are different.

Forms of the disease

Doctors-dentists divide enamel hypoplasia into 6 forms:

  • Spotted. With it appear spots of white on the surface of the teeth, because of this there is a change in the structure of the tissue. Sometimes the color of the spots can be yellow or light brown. The central incisors are spotted first.
  • Erosive or bowl-shaped. It appears in the form of round or oval defects, similar to the bowl, which differ from each other in size. The erosive form has a paired character, often it affects the teeth, located symmetrically. Enamel can thin out towards the bottom of the bowl, and sometimes completely absent. In some cases, the spots may acquire a yellow tint due to the fact that the dentin seeps.

furry teeth

  • Furrowed. On the surface of the teeth appear furrows, they are parallel to each other and pass to adjacent teeth. This form mostly affects all teeth. Depth depends on the severity of the disease. Upper incisors usually suffer more than other teeth.
  • Linear and wavy forms. Visually on the teeth are visible grooves, which are located vertically. Most often they are on the vestibular side. Because of this it seems that the enamel is wavy.
  • Aplastic. This is the most severe form of hypoplasia. Enamel on the teeth with it is missing completely, or there are only small parts of it.
  • Mixed. With her, most people notice most forms simultaneously. Each affects only a couple of teeth. Most often, the spotted and cup-shaped forms are manifested together.

The teeth photo shown above shows a vertical furrow that destroys the enamel.

Hypoplasia of infant teeth

The disease occurs in many children. This is due to the fact that it can develop in the pre-natal period. There are cases when the child has hypoplasia, which passes by itself when the bite changes. But this does not mean that you do not need to do anything with it. After all, weakened milk teeth will be prone to caries, and this, in turn, will cause problems with permanent teeth. During hypoplasia immunity decreases, so the baby can often get sick.

chaff teeth

The child can face further with such diseases:

  • Stronger erasure of teeth.
  • Destruction of dental tissues.
  • Complete loss of affected teeth.
  • Appearance of abnormal( abnormal) occlusion.

Diagnosis of tooth hypoplasia

To detect the disease is easy enough, especially in later stages. However, early on the disease can be confused with the initial and superficial caries.





A single white spot is located on the surface next to the neck of the tooth.

Multiple spots have a white or yellow-brown color and are located on the entire surface of the tooth.

Enamel condition

The enamel has a smooth and even surface.

The surface of the enamel is covered with furrows and pits, in rare cases may be missing partially or completely.


Teeth have an unchanged shape.

Teeth with some types of disease are modified, barrel-shaped, and the cutting edge resembles a crescent moon.

If you find any signs of illness, consult a doctor and he will put an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment of

If hypoplasia is weak and there are spots on the teeth that are invisible to the unaided eye, then treatment can not be performed. When the spots are noticeable or the process of tooth decay has begun, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor who will immediately take appropriate measures. However sad it might sound, the disease can not be cured completely. Dentists can correct cosmetic defects, but there is a possibility that after a while you will have to contact them again.

The main treatment is performed with the help of teeth whitening. This helps remove stains from the enamel. However, this method is not used in severe stages of the disease. Sometimes doctors perform tooth grinding, which helps to get rid of the bumps and uneven cutting edges.

upper incisors

Also, doctors often use the method of remineralization of tooth enamel. This procedure is carried out with the help of special preparations, such as "Remodent" and "Calcium gluconate" in solution. If the teeth have suffered very much, the dentist will suggest you to install a veneer, a bridge or a crown. For a better effect, it is necessary to cure all existing diseases that affect the condition of the oral cavity.

To reduce the impact of hypoplasia on the teeth, you should carefully monitor hygiene and, if necessary, brush your teeth more than twice a day. You can also cure tooth decay with orthodontic therapy. Doctor's advice: orthopedic treatment can not be performed when the dentoalveolar system in the child is not formed. This will help to avoid the appearance of pulpitis and periodontitis.

Prevention of

In order to prevent the appearance of hypoplasia in adulthood, it is necessary to carry out preventive actions. They will help to avoid illness. If you follow simple rules, you can significantly reduce the risk of hypoplasia in any form and degree. Proceed with prevention is recommended in advance.


Proper and balanced nutrition plays an important role in prevention. It must be observed at the planning stage of pregnancy. Also, nutrition should be controlled and the child after his birth. When the baby is allowed to eat new products, not milk and mixtures, the main thing to include in his diet is the following:

  • Milk, cheese, cottage cheese and other products that contain calcium and fluoride.
  • Vitamin D. You can give your child special drugs and spend more time in the sun.
  • Foods rich in vitamin C. These are broccoli, oranges, tangerines, spinach.
  • Products containing vitamins A and B. These are seafood, legumes, poultry and mushrooms.


It is necessary to accustom the child to oral hygiene from one-year-old age. Teeth should be cleaned in the morning and evening. If your baby will be capricious, then turn this action into a game that the child loves, and include fantasy. Also, after eating, rinse your mouth with water. And do not forget to visit the dentist twice a year. This will help to identify problems before they occur.

Tips for parents

Many parents do not even suspect that dental hypoplasia is a very common disease among children. In order to alleviate the condition of the child, the following steps should be taken:

  • Eliminate all sour and sweet foods from the diet.
  • Use special toothpastes.
  • For small children for oral hygiene, get silicone brushes-fingertips.
  • Regularly perform the procedure for silvering teeth.
  • Keep track of their condition and timely fill teeth when necessary.

central incisors

Doctor's advice: watch your children during the game and do not let run fast. So you can prevent injury to the jaw.

Hypoplasia of tooth enamel in any form is regarded as a developmental defect. It appears due to the failure of metabolic processes in the development of teeth and manifests itself as a qualitative and quantitative violation of enamel. Many dentists believe that these changes appear due to problems in the formation of dental tissues and the transformation of enamel cells.