Where is salivary gland parotid? Inflammation of the parotid salivary gland: causes, symptoms, treatment
Where is parotid salivary gland located? What is it itself, why it becomes inflamed? The answers to all these questions can be found in the materials of the article in question. Also you will find out what symptoms are characteristic for the disease of this internal organ and how it is treated.
What is parotid salivary gland? Photos of this body you can see in this article.
This is a complex alveolar serous paired salivary gland. It has an irregular shape, as well as a thin capsule, which completely covers it. According to experts, the weight of such an organ is only 20-30 g.
Human salivary glands are paired organs. They play a huge role in the process of digestion of food, and also have a direct effect on the protein and mineral exchanges that occur in the body.
Parotid parotid gland is just one of the types of organ under consideration. There are also submandibular and sublingual glands.
How does the function perform?
Per 24 hours salivary gland parotid, submandibular and sublingual produce up to 2 liters of fluid. These organs are very important for moisturizing the oral mucosa, as well as for protecting against the introduction of pathogenic bacteria into the body. In addition, they take a direct part in the cleavage of complex carbohydrates and the excretion of certain medicinal substances.
It should also be noted that parotid parotid gland plays the role of endocrine glands, exerting a beneficial effect on protein and mineral metabolism. This is due to the presence in their secret of a hormone-like substance called parotinin.
It is known that saliva helps unhindered passage of food into the pharynx, improves the taste perception, and also increases the resistance of the human body to various infections with the help of lysozyme.
Anatomy and location
Parotid parotid gland has an irregular shape and a grayish pink color. It is located in the parotid-chewing part of the face, immediately under the skin, down and in front of the auricle. Thus, this paired organ is located at the posterior edge of the muscle, chewing, on the lateral part of the lower jaw.
Above this organ comes to the zygomatic arch, behind - to the processes of the temporal bone( mastoid) and the anterior edge of the clavicomasto-mastoid muscle, and from the bottom to the lower jaw( to its corner).
Parotid gland is covered with a capsule called "parotid-chewing fascia".Its density is uneven. In its majority it is dense, but has loosened areas that cover the medial and upper surfaces of the gland.
The capsule in question is introduced into the salivary organ and divides it into lobes. Thus, the parotid gland has a lobed structure.
Blood supply to the gland is carried out by the parotid branches of the temporal artery. As for the venous outflow, it occurs with the help of a dwarf vein.
Parotid salivary gland: inflammation of
The common name for the inflammatory processes occurring in the salivary glands is the term "sialoadenitis".Typically, such diseases occur when the infection comes along with blood or lymph, and ascending way - from the mouth. This pathological process can be purulent and serous.
Parotid salivary gland, the inflammation of which can occur for various reasons, is susceptible to mumps or mumps. If your child hurts and symmetrically swollen this paired organ, then you can safely put the above diagnosis. It should be specially noted that complication of mumps is male infertility. This is due to the fact that the mumps virus affects both the salivary glands and the germic tissue of the testicles. For the prevention of this disease vaccination is used, which is carried out for children of preschool age.
Inflammation of the parotid gland, the treatment of which will be presented below, may indicate not only epidemic parotitis. This organ is also susceptible to autoimmune diseases with the accumulation of lymphoid cells in its tissues. This disease is called Sjogren's syndrome. The cause of this disease can be viral infections in conjunction with a genetic predisposition.
Also considered glands are susceptible to stone sialoadenitis. This disease is characterized by reactive inflammation and the formation of stones in the salivary duct. Such concrements inhibit the outflow of saliva, which can lead to the development of a retention cyst.
Why does it get inflamed?
The causes of inflammation of the parotid salivary gland are known to all specialists. This organ is prone to acute viral infection. Such a disease is childish and very often occurs in the form of epidemic outbreaks in school and preschool groups.
Most often, the virus infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. Although cases of domestic infection are often noted. The main age of the sick children is 5-10 years.
Timely examination of a child can save him from many problems.
It should also be noted that this disease is inherent in adults( more often men).And they carry it more heavily. Very often in adult patients there are complications in the form of infertility and testicular atrophy.
Symptoms of the disease
Now you know what the parotid salivary gland is. Inflammation( the symptoms of the disease will be presented right now) of this body should be treated immediately. How to understand that the patient is infected with mumps, or mumps? First, a strong inflammatory process leads to an increase in body temperature to 40 degrees. This state can be fixed for up to one week.
Also for parotitis, there are unpleasant sensations in the location of the parotid gland, which become more intense when trying to talk and use food.
If you examine in detail the area where the organ is located, before the auricle, you can first find a small, and with time and increased swelling.
Other symptoms of
The main symptom of mumps that doctors use for diagnosis is the impaired work of both parotid glands. At the very beginning of the disease, an inflammatory increase in one organ, and then the second one, is triggered.
After the iron has increased its size several times, the patient's face becomes "parotitic", that is, it expands downwards( acquires a pear-shaped form).Also the inflamed organ stretches the skin, which becomes unpleasant and shiny in appearance.
When palpated, the affected glands are very sore. Sometimes they squeeze the ear canals and cause unpleasant sensations. By the way, such a process can worsen a patient's hearing.
In view of the fact that the outflow of saliva in the patient is impaired, its mucosa becomes excessively dry. After a week, the swelling of the parotid glands is gradually decreasing. Together with this, the other symptoms of the disease also disappear.
In addition to the virus origin, mumps can occur due to injuries, infections and hypothermia.
Diagnosis of the disease
Now you know why there is inflammation of the parotid salivary gland. Symptoms, treatment of this disease are also presented in the materials of the article.
To diagnose such a disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. Experienced specialists diagnose immediately after examination of the patient. This is due to the fact that the symptoms of parotid inflammation are quite difficult to confuse with signs of other diseases. But in order to find the viral cause of this disease, many doctors recommend making swabs from the oropharynx, and also take the secret of the organ for its subsequent analysis. By the way, blood is good for this. From this biological material can be fairly easy to isolate the virus.
Often, specialists diagnose the paired blood serum of a patient for diagnosis. Such an analysis also makes it possible to detect antibodies to the parotid virus.
As mentioned above, only an examination by a face surgeon or a dentist is sufficient to diagnose the disease in question. But in some cases, specialists perform additional examinations to clarify the nature of the pathological process. One of them is ultrasound of soft tissues located above the salivary glands. In this case, doctors can:
- determine the presence of a calculus;
- assess the nature of the pathological process( eg, diffuse or localized);
- diagnose an inflammatory or other process in all salivary glands.
What if the parotid salivary gland inflamed?
Preparations that can quickly cure mumps are not available at the moment. In uncomplicated cases, treatment of this disease is symptomatic. It is aimed exclusively at preventing the development of complications.
In view of the fact that the considered disease is transmitted mainly by airborne droplets, daily wet cleaning with the use of disinfectant solutions should be included as an obligatory measure during the patient's therapy. Also, the patient is recommended to rinse the mouth with soda solutions and citric acid. Such procedures will increase salivation and contribute to the erosion of the stagnant contents of the salivary glands.
In addition to all of the above, the patient must:
- comply with bed rest;
- apply alcohol or warming salt compresses to the areas of inflammation;
- undergo warming physiotherapy procedures;
- rinse your mouth with various antiseptics.
In severe forms of sialoadenitis, antibacterial therapy is required. Its goal is to eliminate the inflammatory process and restore the normal functioning of the gland.
To remove the tumor and improve the microcirculation of the body, the patient is often prescribed compresses using Dimexide. If after this the symptoms persist, then intramuscular injections of sulfonamide antibiotics and hyposensitizing agents are performed. Also sometimes resort to the drainage of the salivary glands. This procedure allows you to eliminate stagnant contents of the gland and remove signs of inflammation.