General urine analysis - norm and pathology

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Various pathological processes affecting the kidneys and urinary tracts affect the properties of urine, so its study is important for the diagnosis of diseases. Most commonly, a general urine test is used. The norm of this analysis indicates not only the normal functioning of the kidneys, but also of other organs.

As a rule, examine the morning urine collected in a dry, clean container, up to 200 ml. The general analysis consists of three parts, including physical indicators, chemical indices and microscopy of urinary sediment.

General urine test: physical norm norm

The physical indicators of the general analysis include quantity, color, odor, specific gravity and transparency.

The color of urine is determined by the content of urochrome, urobilin and other substances. Normally, it can be a yellow shade of varying intensity and depends on the concentration. Color change is associated with the appearance in it of a large number of red blood cells and bile pigments, which is always a symptom of pathology.

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The odor of urine is normal, but not sharp. Often it is compared with the smell of freshly mown hay. The decomposing urine has a pronounced smell of ammonia. In the presence of ketone bodies, it gets the smell of rotten apples.

Specific gravity varies widely and depends on the concentration of salts, urea, and in pathology - sugar and protein. Normally, the specific gravity is determined from 1015 to 1028. A stable high specific gravity is determined in diabetes mellitus, low - with renal failure.

Urine should normally be clear. Turbidity can be caused by the presence of salts, mucus, bacteria, blood cells.

The general analysis of urine: the norm of chemical indices

The chemical indices of urine are its reaction, as well as the presence of protein, sugar, bile pigments, bile acids, urobilin, ketone bodies.

An important indicator is the reaction of urine. The blood reaction is maintained at a stable level due to the ability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions and bicarbonates from the body. The average urinary pH is about 6.0.

No other chemical indicators should be normal. Traces of protein and a small amount of ketone bodies are allowed.

Acidity increases with renal failure, diabetes, urolithiasis, kidney tuberculosis and other diseases. Urine acquires an alkaline reaction for vomiting, chronic infections of the urinary tract, with the use of predominantly plant foods, alkaline mineral water.

The appearance of protein occurs with all kidney diseases with nephron damage. Glucosuria, that is, the presence of sugar in the urine appears in diabetes mellitus, as well as with cirrhosis and thyrotoxicosis. Bilirubinuria is observed in liver diseases.

Urine analysis: Norm of microscopy of sediment

Microscopy of urinary sediment is necessary to determine such substances in the urine that are in suspension and can not be determined by chemical testing. The sediment is determined by blood elements, epithelial cells, cylinders, salt crystals and bacteria. An important indicator that reflects the general analysis of urine is leukocytes. The norm of this indicator is single white blood cells in the field of vision. In the urine of a healthy person, single red blood cells, a small number of flat epithelial cells, and single hyaline cylinders can also be determined.

An increase in the number of red blood cells is called hematuria and can occur with damage to the kidney tissue, traumatizing the urinary tract with sand or stone, and the pathology of the bladder.

Leukocyturia, that is, a significant number of leukocytes in microscopy occurs with an inflammatory process in the kidney or urinary tract. The same can be said for a large number of epithelial cells, the appearance of which in large numbers also occurs with intoxication and infectious diseases.

Crystals of salts in the form of urate, oxalate and phosphate are formed with urolithiasis.

Normally, urine is sterile, the appearance of bacteria in it indicates the presence of bacterial inflammation of the urinary tract.

We examined what the general urine test shows. Any deviation from normal indicators requires attention, as it may be a symptom of the pathology of the kidneys or other organs.